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Bone Diseases: Osteoporosis Essay

2146 words - 9 pages

Osteoporosis is a disease that results in the thinning of bones making them brittle which eventually lead to serious injuries in older adults. The disease falls into two categories, Type 1 Postmenopausal and Type 2 Age Related. Bone itself is a tissue comprised of calcium and collagen which provides our body with the resilient framework to carry on day to day activities. “More than 99% of the body’s calcium is contained in the bones and teeth, the remaining one percent is found in the blood.” (1). Years of “conventional wisdom” on Osteoporosis has suggested that simply drinking milk or supplementing calcium can avoid this disease from presenting itself, if only it were that simple. Throughout the course of an individual’s life, bone is constantly remodeling which occurs through the processes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts are cells that form bones; contrarily osteoclasts are the cells that breakdown, reabsorb and remove the unnecessary bone tissue. During adolescent years, bones become denser and stronger because new bone is formed more rapidly than old bone can be removed. At the peak bone mass, the formation of new bone starts to slow down and removal of old bone catches up.
If a woman never reaches her optimal peak bone mass, the risk to develop osteoporosis increases. After menopause, a woman loses bone mass rapidly because of osteoclasts occur more frequently than osteoblasts all while estrogen levels decrease. This can also affect men but is rare, referred to as Osteoporosis is Type 1. Type 2 Osteoporosis is related to old age can affect both genders. There are many underlying issues and risk factors that can account for Osteoporosis such as being female, having a small/thin frame, advanced age, family history, being postmenopausal, amenorrhea, anorexia, bulimia, diets low in calcium, certain medications, inactive lifestyle, cigarette smoking, excessive use of alcohol and being Caucasian or Asian. Some diseases that can deter calcium and Vitamin D absorption are autoimmune disorders as well as hematologic blood disorders which require the use of many medications. Endocrine and hormonal disorders also have a high risk of Osteoporosis such as Diabetes, Hyperparathyroidism and irregular menstrual cycles. “Individuals with digestive and gastrointestinal disorders such as celiac disease struggle with absorbing nutrients and cannot ingest gluten products such as wheat, barley, and rye which contain Vitamin D.”(2). A poor diet that does not contain the proper food groups such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, protein and dairy which may further increase risk factors of a person obtaining the disease while eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia have the same adverse effect on the bones as menopause. The female athlete triad exists when a female does not get her period due to an eating disorder in conjunction with excessive exercise. “BMD (bone mineral density) in amenorrheic athletes has been measured at levels 25% to 40%...

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