Outline About Echinoderms, Birds, And Mammals

1691 words - 7 pages

outline about echinoderms, birds, and mammals !!!!Echinoderms, Birds, and MammalsChapters: 34, 39, 40I. Diversity- Echinodermata ('Spiny-Skin')A. Characteristics1. undergo metamorphosis from free- swimming larva to bottom dwelling adult. five radii(pentaradial symmetry)2. endoskeleton, calcium plates, include protruding spines3. water- vascular system (water- filled canals)4. tube feet, aid in movement, feeding, respiration, and excretion5. no circulatory, respiratory or excretory systems6. nervous system, but no head or brain7. two sexes, reproduce sexually or asexuallyB. Evolution and Classification1. 500 million years ago in Cambrian period2. 6,000 species into five classesa. Crinoidea ('Lily- Like')(1) sessile, long stalk attached to sea bottom or rock(2) mouth doesn't face sea bottom(3) five arms divide into more arms, up to 200 in some feather- star species(4) sticky tube feet, at end of each arm, capture food and respireb. Asteroidea ('Star- Like')(1) sea stars, starfish(2) prey on oysters, clams, other organisms used as food for humansc. Ophiuroidea ('Snake- Like')(1) basket stars and brittle stars(2) largest echinoderm Class(3) long narrow arms, move quickly(4) feed by raking in food with arms, tube feet, trapping food with tube feet or mucus between spinesd. Echinoidea ('Hedgehog- like')(1) endoskeleton called test(2) grind food with jaw- like Aristotle's Lantern(3) tube feet for motion, teeth- like structures for feeding(4) venom for protectione. Holothuroidea(1) armless sea cucumbers(2) soft body, tube feet on aboral side, tentacles (modified tube feet) surround mouth and sweep in food(3) when threatened, eject internal organs through anus (evisceration), later regenerate lost partsII. Structure and Function (Sea Star)A. Body plan1. mouth located on underside of body (oral surface)2. top of body called aboral surface3. has endoskeleton (within body)4. ossicle - protective spines on aboral surface, form from calcium plates5. pedicellariae - surround spines protect and clean surface of bodyB. Water- Vascular System1. used for movement, network of canals, muscle contractions create hydrostatic pressure which permits movement2. water enters sieve plate, passes through madreporite and down the stone canal, to ring canal and into radial canals, to tube feet, to ampulla3. allows star fish to climb slippery rocks or catch preyC. Feeding and Digestion1. tube feet to obtain food, usually mollusk, worms, and other slow moving animals2. attaches tube feet to each side of clam shell, and pulls until shell opens3. turns stomach inside out and inserts stomach into clam4. enzymes digest clam while still in shell5. star fish withdraws stomach and digestion is completedD. Other Body Systems1. no circulatory, excretory or respiratory systems2. fluid in coelom bathes organs and provide oxygen3. gas exchange and excretion from tube feet and skin gills4. no head or brain, nerve ring surrounds mouth and branches off into Nerve cords that extend into each...

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