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# Outline Of Chapter 3: Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version, (A. Bluman 3rd Ed., 2003).

1525 words - 6 pages

Summarize data using measures of central tendency, such as the mean, median, mode, and midrange.Describe data using the measures of variation, such as the range, variance, and standard deviation.Identify the position of a data value in a data set using various measures of position, such as percentiles, deciles, and quartiles.Use the techniques of exploratory data analysis, including boxplots and five-number summaries to discover various aspects of data.Statistical methods can be used to summarize data.Measures of average are also called measures of central tendency and include the mean, median, mode, and midrange.Measures that determine the spread of data values are called measures of variation or measures of dispersion and include the range, variance, and standard deviation.Measures of position tell where a specific data value falls within the data set or its relative position in comparison with other data values.The most common measures of position are percentiles, deciles, and quartiles.The measures of central tendency, variation, and position are part of what is called traditional statistics. This type of data is typically used to confirm conjectures about the data.Another type of statistics is called exploratory data analysis. These techniques include the the box plot and the five-number summary. They can be used to explore data to see what they show.A statistic is a characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values from a sample.A parameter is a characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data values for a specific population.When the data in a data set is ordered it is called a data array.In statistics the basic rounding rule is that when computations are done in the calculation, rounding should not be done until the final answer is calculated.The mean is the sum of the values divided by the total number of values.Rounding rule: the mean should be rounded to one more decimal place than occurs in the raw data.The type of mean that considers an additional factor is called the weighted mean.The Arithmetic Average.The Greek letter (mu) is used to represent the population mean.The symbol ("x-bar") represents the sample mean.Assume that data are obtained from a sample unless otherwise specified.The median is the halfway point in a data set. The symbol for the median is MD.The median is found by arranging the data in order and selecting the middle point.The value that occurs most often in a data set is called the mode.The mode for grouped data, or the class with the highest frequency, is the modal class.The midrange is defined as the sum of the lowest and highest values in the data set divided by 2.The symbol for midrange is MR.One computes the mean by using all the values of the data.The mean varies less than the median or mode when samples are taken from the same population and all three measures are computed for these samples.The mean is used in computing other statistics, such as variance.The mean for the data set is unique,...

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