Outline The Social And Technological Development Of The Internet

2128 words - 9 pages

Outline the social and technological development of the Internet Introduction We live in an age of constant changes but the technologies that change the way we live are rare. Looking back through this century, I can point to the telephone, the television, the automobile, and the computer. These and a handful of other innovations have changes how we interact with the rest of the world.Ten years ago, the idea that we could own a personal computer was just beginning to take hold. Today, personal computers are so common that many young people will learn how to use them while still in elementary school.Today's world is also becoming more and more interconnected. This means that we can use a car phone to dial a friend halfway around the globe. We can watch live television coverage of athletes breaking Olympic and world records on other countries. We can invest in all the world's economies, because stock markets in Tokyo, London, and New York are linked electronically to form a huge 24-hour-a-day business opportunity.One of the most exciting manifestations of this interconnectedness and the significant technologies is the Internet. The Internet is a global collection of people and computers, all linked together by many miles of cables and telephone lines, all able to communicate because they share a common language. One of the beauties of the Internet is that it's constantly changing and growing. It's part of a new electronic frontier for communicating and exchanging ideas and resources. It promises to change how we buy things, and how we communicate with other people. In the future, it will determine where we go for our entertainment, news, and weather, and where we work.Quantitatively, the success of the Internet is obvious. Less obvious is that the growth has been fairly stable. Note that the figures of the later half of the diagram below are more accurate. As Gordon Bell has put it, when things get into the millions, people notice.Latest figures are for July 1996: 12, 881, 000 hosts.Brief History Of The Internet The Internet originated in the early 1970s as part of an Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) research project on "internetworking".In a well-known joint effort that took place around 1973, Robert Kahn, then at ARPA, and Vinton Cerf, then at Stanford, collaborated on the design of an internetwork architecture that would allow packet networks of different kinds to interconnect and machines to communicate across the set of interconnected networks.The initial satellite Earth stations were in United States and the United Kingdom, but subsequently additional Earth stations were activated in Norway, Germany, and Italy. Several, experimental PRNETs were connected, including one in the San Francisco Bay area. At the time, no personal computers, workstations, or local area networks were available commercially, and the machines involved were mainly large-scale scientific time-sharing systems. Remote access to time-sharing systems was made...

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