This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Over The Counter Access To Emergency Contraception Essay

1305 words - 6 pages

Over the past 10-15 years, over-the-counter access to emergency contraception has been a highly debated issue, both scientifically and politically. The FDA first approved plan B, or levonorgestrel, in 1999 for the use in emergency contraception up to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The use of this product would help to reduce the occurrence of unintended pregnancies in the United States, which is much higher than other similarly developed nations. When first introduced to the market, it was available by prescription only. However after continual deliberation and petitioning by the drug manufacturers the FDA approved the Plan B One-Step in 2009 to be dispensed via ...view middle of the document...

Unintended pregnancies are a prominent issue in the United States, with a rate of 52/1000 women between the ages 15-44 years old, accounting for approximately 49% of pregnancies. The rates have been found to be significantly higher than other developed countries. The availability of emergency contraception is of particular interest as more four out of five teen pregnancies are unintended, most of which result in abortion. Thus, with the new accessibility of the drug unintended pregnancies may be expected to decrease throughout all age groups.

Primary Literature Review
When considering the implications and controversy that surrounds this new ruling, there a three factors that need to be addressed. One must consider the safety and efficacy of the drug in younger populations, the ability of younger females to comprehend proper usage of the medication, and the impact of increased availability of the drug on decreasing unintended pregnancies in the United States.
When addressing the safety and efficacy of the drug, as it was previously mentioned, there have been multiple studies conducted in women from ages 13 to 45 years old. Of particular interest were studies conducted involving females from ages 12-16. These are of interest as the average age for menarche is 12.4 years and 90% of women have menstruated by the age of 13.8 years. One study conducted in 2004 in San Francisco, California addressed two of the issues at hand. The study consisted of 52 healthy females aged 12-16 years old who had reached menarche. The study looked to evaluate the occurrence of side effects, access proper usage of the product, and evaluate the impact on the individual’s menstrual cycle after the administration of two 0.75 mg levonorgestrel tablets. After data was collected, it was determined that 51/52 participants (98%) had taken the second dose as directed, while 49/52 participants (94%) did not have any issues with following the directions. No serious side effects were noted however common side effects such as nausea (p=0.001), headache (p=0.004), fatigue (p=0.002), and diarrhea (p=0.002) did occur and were noticeably more likely to occur in the first week. Other side effects such as vomiting, dizziness, and breast tenderness did occur but reports did not occur more in the first week. As for the participant’s menstrual cycle, the measured last menstrual period before administration averaged 5.0 days across the group and was found to last 5.3 days after the treatment (P= 0.146); thus no significant difference was observed in duration of menses. The majority (62.5%) of patients had their menses return within a week of the expected date, with 8% occurring later than 7 days and 29% occurring early.
Studies have also been conducted to further analyze label comprehension in younger adolescents (as young as 12 years old). Sufficient data is limited due to the low percentage of women engaging in sexual...

Find Another Essay On Over-the-counter Access to Emergency Contraception

Deadly Trend: Over The Counter Drugs

1714 words - 7 pages treat headaches, sinus pressure, or cold/flu symptoms contain the active ingredient dextromethorphan (DXM) and are the ones that teens are using to get high” (“Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse”). Although the percentage on teens abusing illegal drugs has decreased in the past years, over-the-counter drugs (OTC) abusers have increased in abundance. Therefore leads me to believe that there should be stricter laws that limit the access to OTC to prevent

Over Done Imagery During The Counter-Culture Movement

2117 words - 9 pages would become littered with wars and social unrest, the beautiful poster eventually become a forgotten art. The ‘hippie’ counter-culture of the 1960s and early 1970s influenced design and modern art. Though claims of drug-induced imagery propelled the rise of psychedelic posters, the art style became influential in understanding the target audience and adapting styles to the times. This counter-culture’s use of psychedelic posters drew influence from

The Pros and Cons of Over the Counter Birth Control Pills

1377 words - 6 pages . Practice Nurse, 41(4), 40-41 Dennis, A., & Grossman, D. (2012). Barriers to Contraception and Interest In Over-the-Counter Access Among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Study. Perspectives On Sexual & Reproductive Health, 44(2), 84-91. doi:10.1363/4408412 Grossman, D. (2013). Moving Oral Contraceptives Over the Counter as a Strategy to Reduce Unintended Pregnancy. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 158(11), 839- Is it time to bring OCs over

Ads/Promotions of 2nd Generation Over the Counter Non-Sedating Antihistamines

2108 words - 9 pages The ads/promotions I have chosen to discuss are 2nd generation over the counter non-sedating antihistamines for the relief of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is broken down into two types, seasonal or perennial. Seasonal allergic rhinitis occur in spring, summer and/or early fall due to increased levels of pollen from trees, grasses, or weeds, and or growth of mold spores. Perennial allergic rhinitis causes year-round

Expanding Access to the International Baccalaureate

2663 words - 11 pages . Presently the IB operates predominately in a small number of regions. In 2010, only a dozen countries accounted for 75% of IB World Schools (Bates, 2010) with only 2% located in Africa – a figure unchanged since the 1980s (Bates, 2010). Reasons for this geographic disparity have been linked to concerns over the IBOs Eurocentric curriculum. As a counter to this perception, the IBO has been proactively attempting to redress this global imbalance

Access Technologies: Connecting to the Internet

979 words - 4 pages There are various ways that residential users and businesses can connect to the internet though internet service providers (ISPs). The various methods for doing this are called access technologies. While traditionally, these technologies are based around wired technologies, wireless internet connectivity is increasingly driving the innovation based around access technology. Access technologies are typically divided into two categories that

Dangers of Unlimited Access to the Internet

1035 words - 4 pages Katie Freeman-Hogan Mrs. Drummond English 10 21 May 2014 Dangers of Unlimited Access “Social media websites can enrich children’s lives, but they can also be hazardous to their mental and physical health” (Hellmich). (Social media sites) “can enhance kids’ creativity and help them develop technical skills. They can also can lead to cyberbullying, depression, and exposure to inappropriate content” (Hellmich). Even if the internet can help the

Equal Before the Law: The Key to Counter Racism

1266 words - 5 pages causes a devastating impact on the world; morally, culturally and economically. We wish that the indifference in people where only distant memories but over the years racism keeps on being an obstacle for those who their nationality is being prejudiced and judged. Racism hence division within society and can be the cause of community cohesion. Because of racism, human species are to be divided by societies viewpoints and perspectives. We’re blaming

Conflicts between Countries, States or Groups over Access to a Safe Water Supply

1914 words - 8 pages Water conflict is a term describing a conflict between countries, states, or groups over an access to safe water supply. Water is a limited resource and in the future access might get worse with climate change, although scientists' projections of future rainfall are notoriously cloudy it is now commonly said that future wars in the Middle East are more likely to be fought over water than over oil. According to UNESCO, the current interstate

The Contraception Mandate: A Complex Debate Between Religious Freedoms and a Woman’s Right to Health

2240 words - 9 pages , privacy, and gender equality of women to exercise their civil liberties. From a macro perspective the question at hand is whether or not the rights of the individual should prevail over the rights of corporations to exercise religious freedom. Should corporations be required to comply with the contraception mandate? From a micro perspective, the question at hand is if the mandate is in breach of the corporations’ constitutional rights and

“Access to Capital Structure, and the Funding of the Firm”

1446 words - 6 pages Introduction In this essay, I will give brief review notes for “Access to Capital Structure, and the Funding of the Firm” (Omer Brav 2009) which will be focused on the goal of this easy, how and why the theoretical hypotheses are tested and what are the findings. Some discussions about data, methodology used and theory defects will also be included in this essay for critical comment. Content Objective Since earlier capital structure

Similar Essays

The School Access To Emergency Epinephrine

1018 words - 5 pages from lethal occurrences. The School Access to Emergency Epinephrine Act is the answer to decrease the risk of these situations. The bill authorizes the Congress to give funding to the schools if they meet the following requirements: maintain an emergency supply of epinephrine, permit trained personnel of the school to administer epinephrine, and develop a plan for ensuring trained personnel are available to administer epinephrine during all hours of

Emergency Contraception In The United States Today

2065 words - 8 pages provided when the emergency arises or in advance to be used as needed. Greater use of emergency contraception could reduce the considerable medical and social costs of unintended pregnancies (Trussell, Koenig, and Ellertson, 1997). The most important step in assisting women in preventing unintended pregnancy is in educating health care providers about emergency contraceptives so that all patients have access to this method (Morgan and Deneris

Should Teens Have Access To Emergency Conception?

1169 words - 5 pages without a challenge and help one’s life improve without a road block. The morning-after pill can save lives but also can take one. It also can put your health at risk if you don’t take it responsibly and under the guidance of adult. Don’t let one decision benefit your whole life, by taking the pill or not. Works Cited Bartels, F.K. ‘’Teen Should Not Have Access to Emergency Contraception without Parental Constent. ‘’ Birth Control. Ed

Condoms, The Pill,Emergency Contraception (Morning After Pill). All Explained As Well As An Answer To What Options 'alice' Has To Do, She Thinks She Is Pregent

769 words - 3 pages means that a pregnancy cannot begin. This makes it one of the most effective methods of birth control.§ The only reason for the pill not to work is if you forget to take one.§ Is 98% effective§ Disadvantage is sore breasts, nausea breakthrough bleeding, weight gain and mood change§ Dose Not Protect against STI's§ Serious Relationship (i.e., Marriage)Emergency Contraception (Morning