Overview Of The Immune System Essay

1084 words - 4 pages

Every day special cells, tissues, proteins and organs which made overall immune system defend against microorganisms, germs and viruses which enter our body. Immune system is system which is able to prevent organism and kill the pathogens. Most of time immune system has dual system in properties and has capacity to identify self and non-self organisms (1). For instance, immune system can be general or specific, natural or adaptive (sometimes called innate or acquired), cell mediated or humoral, active or passive and also primary and secondary (2). Immune system is able to recognize and attack particular antigens, it is called ‘antigen specific’ part, also it has ‘systemic’ part which works throughout the body, and it is not restricted only to initial infection site. Moreover immune system has ‘memory’ part which is able to recognize and attack stronger to the same antigen next time. This essay will discuss each dual part of immune system: organs, cells and soluble components, also describe the difference between innate and acquired immune system.
Human organism has two fluids which intertwined throughout the body: blood and lymph. They are responsible for transporting the agents of immune system. Lymphoid system is composed of tissues and organs which produce specific resistance to human diseases (3). Also it consists of tissues which found in lymph nodes. Lymphoid tissues dedicated to circulation and production of lymphocytes, while lymph nodes serve as filtration of lymphoid system and activation of lymphocytes. Human lymphoid system has two organs: central or primary lymphoid organ and peripheral or secondary lymphoid organ. Primary organs are located in bone marrow and thymus and generate lymphocytes from immature progenitor cells. Secondary lymphoid organs located near possible entrance of pathogens: adenoids, tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, also at Peyer’s patches and appendix (2). The secondary lymphoid organs maintain mature lymphocytes, initiate adaptation, besides, it is cite for lymphatic activation by antigens (1).
As mentioned before, immune system contains cells, tissues and specific organs which attack and destroy pathogens and microorganisms. Most of immune system derived from stem cells in bone marrow. Pluripotent stem cells give rise to myeloid progenitor and lymphoid progenitor (ibid). Myeloid progenitor supports non-specific immune system, while lymphoid progenitor supports specific immune system. Non-specific immune system sometimes referred as innate immune system; this immunity one is born with and it is first respond is eliminate pathogens and prevent infection. On the other side, specific immune system referred as adaptive (acquired). Despite their ways how to attack, both of them are responsible to prevent infection. As we said before, innate immune system works very faster and ready to be mobilized upon infection, whereas adaptive immune system requires a long time to respond to invaders (4). Also adaptive immune...

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