Tuberculosis, MTB or TB is a common and in many cases fatal, infectious disease caused by various stains of mycobacterium, usually – Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. (Behera, 2010). Tuberculosis is spread from one individual to another by speaking, sneezing, coughing or singing. When there is contact by one of the mentioned transmissions, a person may be placed at risk for contracting this disease (bacteria) that attacks the lungs. An attack on the lungs occur when the person breaths in the air, thus the bacteria is entered. The human body may consume bacteria that cause TB. Our immune system usually can prevent illness. Because of this, physicians distinguish between latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis. Signs and symptoms of active TB is:
1) Unintentional 4) Chills 7) Fever
2) Weight loss 5) Loss of appetite 3) Night sweats 6) Fever
A healthy immune system can often fight the bacteria of TB, but if the immune system defense is low the mount is not effective. (WHO, 2012). In this paper I will discuss and apply knowledge of individuals with the infectious communicable disease known as tuberculosis. Registered professional nurses have an important role in infection control and prevention. In this paper I will state the importance of the registered nurses role in infection and control and also apply the findings from an evidence –based practice to patients with infectious and communicable disease.
Breaking the Chain: The Patient with an Infectious Disease (Tuberculosis)
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most known infectious diseases caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that affects the lungs and can affect any age. Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease (after those due to HIV/AIDS). (Mandall, Bennett, 2010). In 2012, there was an estimated 8.6 million chronic active cases of Tuberculosis. (WHO, 2013). Tuberculosis is a disease that affects the population. It continues to grow rapidly and cause an increase in morbidity and mortality. The need for better and more effective ways to diagnose, treat and prevent TB has lead to increasing research and advances in several areas. (Zar, Udeadia, 2013). One must comprehend the infection process. Tuberculosis has six elements in the chain of infection-infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host. In order for tuberculosis to occur, each of the elements must be present because each of these links represents transitions in transmission of the infection.
Infectious Agent (disease)
An infectious agent is defines as any disease causing microorganisms. Examples of infectious agents are: >fungal>bacterial>parasitic>viral
The infectious agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The bacterium usually attacks the lungs, but tuberculosis bacteria can attacks any part of the body such as the kidney,...