Effect of Adapted Physical Activity participation on everyday motivation and self-efficacy for people with disabilities.
Physical activity is not a large priority for people with disabilities. Unfortunately, individuals with disabilities face several barriers to physical activity participation and healthy eating behaviors, leading to more sedentary lifestyles, with poorer health consequences (De, Small, & Baur, 2008; Havercamp, Scanlin, & Roth, 2004; Kemeny, Arnhold, & Herold, 2012). There are honestly not many expectations for persons with disabilities. Integration and inclusion have deemed to be very difficult since society has created so many barriers and people are unwilling to change them. So how do we justify the purpose of physical activity? Yes, there are the obvious health benefits but the aspect that people tend to forget is the individuals psyche: self-perception, self-efficacy and motivation.
The articles chosen for review all have a common goal of figuring out the psychological and social benefits of physical activity. Physical activity and sport give people a sense of affiliation which is really critical if the disability is affected by social barriers. The three common themes are the impact of APA on intrinsic motivation for people with disabilities, a question wondering if people’s perception of physical activity derive from their rehabilitation experience, and will physical activity increase motivation and self efficacy for people with disabilities in the daily lives.
Physical Activity versus Rehabilitation
The World Health Organization defines physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Rehabilitation of people with disabilities is a process aimed at enabling them to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological and social functional levels (World Health Organization, 2011). Rehabilitation includes but is not limited to speech pathology, occupational/recreational/ physical therapy, vocational therapy and counseling. The definition of physical activity was not explained in most of the articles and was up for participant interpretation. When comparing physical activity to physical activity to physical therapy, individuals typically did not mention the health benefits of PA (Self, Driver, Stevens, & Warren, 2013).
There were several factors that were associated with people’s (specifically youth) perception of physical activity. In Chunxiao and Shihui article they gave given the definition of physical activity. The analysis of data emerged four common themes related with the experiences for participation in PA: sedentary behaviors; enjoyment; motivations; and barriers (Chunxiao, L. & Shihui, C., 2012). Bullying was a typical source of negative experiences, which has been a critical environmental factor that hinders successful social inclusion (Law et. Al, 2006; Chunxiao, L. &...