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P3, M3 Current Issues In Sport

2563 words - 10 pages

Stephen Phillips P3, P4, M1, M2, D1 NutritionIn every different food and drink are things that are called calories, calories are essentially the amount of energy it takes to raise one gram of water by one degree Celsius, Therefore a calorie is the energy we use in order for this to happen. On the other hand a joule is the energy it takes to move a mass of 1 gram at 1 metre per second, a kilocalorie is basically 4.2 kilojoules. A calorie or joule are far too small to actually count, so we times these by 1000 to make something called kilocalories or kilojoules. We measure the amount of energy we get from foods in the kilo form.Most people nowadays believe that calories are bad and things that make us overweight or put weight on. This is some senses is true and this will happen if too many calories are being consumed, this then forces the body to find a storage place for the extra calories such as your stomach, chin and arms, this is then known as fat. However we need to consume calories in order to give us energy throughout the day, therefore the government created the RDA guidelines (recommended daily allowance), this is basically the RDA for the amount of calories one should consume to avoid putting weight and help us through the day. The RDA is different for men (2500 calories) and women (2000 calories), men have a higher RDA because they are generally bigger and more active than women and need to take in more. The calorie consumption will vary depending on the body composition of an individual and also their level of activity during the day. Each nutrient that foods contain, comes with a different amounts of calories some more than others and vice versa;1g of fat = 9.0 kcal = 38 KJ1g of carbohydrate = 4.0 kcal = 17 KJ1g of protein = 4.0 kcal = 17 KJ1g of alcohol = 7.0 kcal = 29 KJThe intake of calories will differ depending on the athlete's goal, for example if an athlete's goal is to tone up then the calories intake for that athlete normally should be 500 below the RDA so for men they would look to intake 2000 calories and for women is would be 1500, for weight loss this is known as negative energy balance. On the other hand should an athlete want to put on weight then they would aim to intake above the RDA and this is known as positive energy balance. The third type of balance is basically known as "energy balance" and is where you intake the same amount of calories. The calories that an athlete intakes are consumed through diet with the food and drinks we ingest throughout the day. However the energy expenditure can originate from a variety of different things such as; BMR (basal metabolic rate), TEF (thermic effect of food), DT (dietetic technician) and the PA (physical activity). The energy balance equation is displayed below.Everybody will digest foods and drinks at different speeds, this is known as the BMR (basal metabolic rate) and is the rate of how fast the foods and drinks are digested and gains all the essential nutrients from...

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