This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Pain Essay

1693 words - 7 pages

pain changes in a six point Likert scale, (4) a thermometer pain scale that measures overall degrees of pain.
A study performed by Horgas et al. (2009) evaluated reliability of NOPAIN. The study tested the association between NOPAIN and patient self-report and other pain rating procedures based on patient’s actions. 20 mentally alert and oriented patients and 20 mentally limited patients were participated in this study, and their daily activity was monitored and evaluated based on NOPAIN and other pain assessment tools. The study showed that NOPAIN has high reliability, and significant associations were found between NOPAIN and pain reported by the patients. The result proposed that NOPAIN was a suitable pain assessment tool and could be utilized to measure pain in older populations.
A second pain assessment tool is the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD). This pain scale is established to assist mentally challenged patients and patients who have limited ability to express their pain. The scoring is done based on observations of followings: “breathing, negative vocalization, facial expression, body language, and consolability, which means a sense of well-being”. Each of 5 sections includes a scale from 0 to 2. The recorder adds up the numbers from each 5 section at the end for a final score, which is can be up to 10. In other words, the total score ranges from 0-10 points. A possible interpretation of the scores is the following: 1-3 is mild pain, 4-6 is moderate pain, and 7-10 is severe pain. The patients can be observed under different conditions, such as at rest, during a pleasant activity, during caregiving, after the administration of pain medication (Jordan et al, 2011).
DeWaters et al (2008) conducted a study using PAINAD to assess pain in cognitively limited older adults and cognitively intact older adults, who were admitted in a hospital for a hip surgery due to fracture. 12 cognitively limited patients and 13 cognitively intact patients participated in this study. Numeric rating scale, observational assessment tool, and PAINAD were utilized to assess their pain level. Findings concluded that there was a high correlation between the PAINAD and a self-report pain scale, and it established the validity of PAINAD. In conclusion, the results showed that PAINAD had the validity and reliability as a pain assessment tool, and the study supported that PAINAD can be utilized as a pain measurement tool for hospitalized older populations who cannot express pain by themselves.
A final pain assessment tool is the Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate (PACSLAC). It is a behavioral assessment tool designed to improve the detection of pain in severe dementia. This tool includes following criteria: “facial expression, social, personality, mood, activity, body movement, physiological changes, eating, sleeping changes, vocal behaviors” (Chan et al, 2013). Pain is measured by checking each scale box based on...

Find Another Essay On pain

Pain Management Essay

1439 words - 6 pages What is pain? If you ask someone to tell you the definition of pain they will typically state something that hurts. Registered nurses should know the definition of pain and how it can be identified on their patients. However, Abdalrahim, Majali, Stomberg, and Bergbom (2010) propose that nurses did not receive adequate education in pain management and suggest the lack of knowledge hinders their ability to adequate control their patients’ pain

Pain Perception Essay

918 words - 4 pages This is a study that focused on eighty-three women and examined the effects of cultural and educational influences on the pain in childbirth. The eighty-three women are divided into Middle-Eastern women and Western women. The women ranged in ages from nineteen to thirty-eight. There were thirty people from the Western group and that consisted of women whose mothers were born in Europe, the US or another English speaking country. There were fifty

Pain Management

2048 words - 8 pages Pain management There are many analgesic drugs. Among those the oxycodone is the most pain reliever of opioid analgesic drug. Oxycodone is classified as schedule II controlled substance. It is commonly combined in tablets with acetaminophen (Percocet) and with aspirin (Percodan). Oxycodone is available in the form of immediate-release (Oxy IR) and sustained- release (OxyContin). It is a strong pain reliever often used to control moderate to

Abdominal Pain

651 words - 3 pages may be chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP). This condition may be present when tests do not show the occurrence of any infection. Functional abdominal pain is caused by a disorder in the transmission of pain impulses. This occurs by action of magnification of the stimulation of the nociceptive impulses from the gastrointestinal tract (Golan & Tashjian, 2012). The cause of this condition may be due to various reasons. Since this condition is

Pain Killers

1815 words - 7 pages Each person experiences some kind of a traumatic event at least once in his/ her life. During that period of time people usually feel pain, loneliness and sadness; sometimes they also feel angry or desperate or guilty or even dying. The examples of such stage could be found not only in real life but also in the most famous American novels and stories.There are numerous examples of pain killers in the short stories of Hemingway; one of them is

Silent Pain

1038 words - 4 pages Animals are held accountable for experiencing pain so humans can obtain data to get the best out of products. People believe in order to advance products, animals must undergo rigorous procedures. Animals endure pain, grieve from loneliness, and yearn to walk freely. The animals used in the trials can only involuntary sit in fear and wait patiently for the next terrifying, painful operation that will be performed on them. Most of the

Hidden Pain

1652 words - 7 pages Many have agreed that the stages of adolescence are the most difficult times in a person’s life. During this period, too many people find themselves suffering in silence, and turning to harmful behaviors such as, cutting, burning, extreme dieting, and even suicide as a method of dealing with their pain. I fell victim to these factors as well. Day in and day out I starved myself to achieve perfection that did not exist. Purged every bite I was

Beautiful Pain

810 words - 4 pages spec lost in a cold gigantic ocean. She is worlds away, in uncharted waters. Well, if not an island, an iceberg then, cold and alone. Her distance and hostility has awoken in me a cascade of pain. I don’t think I ever truly knew what it meant to really suffer. It seemed like yesterday when she drowned me with her words and resuscitated me with her love. I was a mere casket of bones and organs, drunk on the idea that only love could make me

Pain Inflicited

1087 words - 5 pages space. After a few minutes of driving up and down the rows I find a parking space in the far back corner. While getting out of my car, I can hear all the cars speeding by on the street behind me. Oh how easily it would be to turn around, get in my car, and join those speeding cars leaving this pain inflicted place. I look up at the building taking in the dirty tan and dark brown trim; dark tinted windows; wilted flowers; dark green shrubberies

Pain Managment: Alternative Ways to Reduce Pain

1372 words - 5 pages This paper will discuss alternative ways to relieve or reduce pain other than the pharmaceutical way of thinking and taking medication. There are many different ways to reduce and manage pain other than taking pain medication. For centuries acupuncture has helped people find relief from all different ailments including chronic pain. Other ways to find relief from pain may include massage, chiropractic care, for many people exercise helps

Pain Assessment Tools

1240 words - 5 pages Pain Assessment ToolsPain is a major health problem in this country and is the most common symptom that prompts a patient to seek health care. Pain tells a person something is wrong. At its worst, pain makes the person's life miserable decreases the ability to function normally. For some, pain decreases his/her desire to live. Pain differs among individual patients, even those who appear to have identical injuries or illnesses. There are two

Similar Essays

Pain Essay

1618 words - 7 pages Nurse practitioner should be able to recognize these descriptors and take them as potential indicators of pain and clarify with further questioning. According to Horgas & Miller (2008), older adults with cognitive or physical limitations, have difficulty expressing details about their pain. These include pain location, duration, onset, type, precipitating factors, and relieving factors of pain. Pain is a subjective experience without valid and

Pain Essay

1168 words - 5 pages Discussion The present study aims to expand our knowledge about the caregivers’ attentional bias to pain. Briefly, our results showed that caregivers demonstrate more attentional bias to painful faces than happy faces in comparison to control participants. Furthermore, we showed that attentional bias to pain was positively related to finding the behavioral pain cues. Finally, in contrast to our hypothesis, higher attentional bias to pain cues

Pain Management Essay

1312 words - 5 pages My patient is an eighty-one year old female experiencing pain after a fall, which led to a broken wrist and a laceration to her forehead. This acute pain has led to loss of appetite, decreased energy level, and disinterest. Before her fall, she had previous acute pain related to compression fractures in her spine. Her knowledge of pain management before her fall was insufficient. Teaching my patient how to manage her pain will hopefully lead to

Measuring Pain Essay

6734 words - 27 pages Measuring Pain 1. 1. Sensory - intensity, duration, threshold, tolerance, location, etc 2. 2. Neurophysiological - brainwave activity, heart rate, etc 3. 3. Emotional and motivational - anxiety, anger, depression, resentment, etc 4. 4. Behavioural - avoidance of exercise, pain complaints, etc 5. 5. Impact on lifestyle - marital distress, changes in