To begin with, capitalism is a type economic system. Simply put, capitalism is the system where workers work for the capitalist and receive wages for their labor. In, Wage-Labour and Capital, Marx explains the exchange between the capitalist and their workers in regards to wages and labor. He wrote:
Since the capitalist owned the mode of production, they had the power to make the workers work for however the amount they wanted to give. The wage-workers had no choice but to accept the amount wages they received. This was their only way to survive. This was around the time where Marx pointed out that the wage-workers were indeed being alienated and exploited.
Because of the conditions that the wage-workers worked in, Marx described it as exploitation. Marx felt that the wage workers were being exploited. The capitalist, also known as the bourgeoisie, were exploiting the wage workers, the proletariats, because of their cheap labor. They were essentially using them to create and increase their own profit. This in turn brought up alienation. Basically, alienation, also known as estrangement, is when a person is separated from their work, what they produce, themselves, and their environment. Marx’s theory of alienation was used to describe workers laboring under the capitalist society. The workers, also known as wage laborers, were commodities—things that are bought, sold, or exchanged in the market. They were selling their labor which means that they were being alienated from what they were doing.
The first type of alienation is from “product of labor”. This is where the worker is separated from their work. This is basically saying that the work that the worker is creating does not necessarily show their creativity. Marx wrote:
What this quote means is that they are just producing things by masses and their originality is sort of disregarded. For example, artisans are manual labor workers who are skilled at making things by hand. When artisans create things, they add some type of signature mark that lets others know that this is their work as oppose to workers under the capitalist system that just follow the same pattern. In other words, the wage workers can be compared to machines; each individual’s work is not significant because they can easily be replaced by someone else (or even a machine).
The second type of alienation is from...