2.2 Elements of making an effective request.
Sometimes people ponder over why their request are never fulfill, by listeners, in the way they really want. In order to make an effective request the speaker has to plan it and be prudent (Potts 2012). According to Pamela Potts (2012), “there are specific elements that, if present, will ensure that a request in effective.” The author later goes on to say; “effective means that if person accepts the request, the likelihood that they will deliver what was requested is high.” (Potts 2012). In order to improve clarity the speaker should apply six elements of making an effective request which include committed speaker, committed listener, future action and conditions of satisfaction, timeframe, mood of request and context (Brothers 2012).
Firstly, committed speaker- if the speaker wants his request to be fulfilled, he has to be committed. Chalmers Brothers (2012) claims that „a commited speaker does what is necessary to elicit a committed listener”. The speaker has to focus on conversation and the person (Brother 2012).
Secondly, committed listener- the listener should be focus on the speaker and actually listen to the requester (Potts 2012). Chalmers Brothers (2012) says that “A committed listener has solid eye contact, paying attention… and is not texting, on the phone, watching TV, eating pizza or filling out forms as he/she is listening to you”.
Thirdly, future actions and conditions of satisfaction which are connected with giving concrete detailed explanation “of the task including what standards to use tio determine if the task has been completed” (Potts 2012). It is significant to remember that what is self-evident for the speaker, may not be self-evident for his/her listener (Brothers 2012).
Next is timeframe which is very important during making a request. The spear has to set a time limit for a task (Potts: 2012, Brothers: 2012). Chalmers Brothers (2012) warns against using “as soon as possible” because this sentence can be relative notion. Pamela Potts (2012) contends that “a task without the a deadline is a hope, a wish and a prayer.
Mood of the request, the next important factor, because the interpretation of the question is depended on the mood (Brother 2012). Pamela Potts (2012) claims “how we say something is often more important than what we say”.
The last is context which is very important for the listener because he/she has to know why the speaker is making the request (Potts 2012). Most of the listeners want to know why they are doing something (Brothers 2012). Thus it is very important to provide them with the context, because when the listener knows the context and “if they understand the spirit of what you are asking then if when adjustment are needed, they can adhere to the spirit of what you intended” (Potts 2012 ).
2.3 Requests in natural conversation
Rue and Zhang present the definition of conversation analysis, “is an empirical approach to the study of spoken...