The first level is locutionary act which is defined as “the production of an utterance with a particular intended structure, meaning, and reference (These provisos are meant to rule out the mindless production of language such as by parrots and computers)” (Cruse2006: 167) and “basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expression” (Yule 1996: 48). Joan Cutting gives two examples of locutionary sentences “I think I might go and have another bun” and “I was going to get another one”.
Barbara Lewandowska- Tomaszczy explains:
A. Locutionary Acts - involve three kinds of acts that are performed by the speaker simultaneously”
a) Phonetic act - i.e. uttering certain noises
b) Phatic act - i.e. uttering words/constructions, etc. belonging to a
vocabulary/grammaer, etc. of a language
c) Rhetic act - i.e. uttering a phatic act with some sense and reference
The second level is illocutionary act which is
an act performed by a speaker in saying something (with an appropriate intention and in an appropriate context), rather than by virtue of having produced a particular effect by saying something. For instance, if someone says I order you to leave now they have performed the act of ordering, simply by virtue of having uttered the words, whether or not the addressee acts in the desired way.
(Cruse 2006: 167, 168)
This kind of sentence is produced in order to fulfill speaker’s goal. It is possible thank to “communicative force of the utterances” which is known as the illocutionary force (Yule 1996: 48). According to Joan Cutting, the illocutionary force is “what is done in uttering the words”, thus such an utterance has an aim which a speaker has in his/her mind ( 2006: 16). Barbara Lewandowska- Tomaszczy claims:
B. Illocutionary acts -involve uttering locutionary acts in order to perform such actions as, e.g. giving an order, warning somebody of a danger, etc.
Lewangowska- Tomaszyk also gives examples of utterences with illocutionary acts which are performed of requesting. “Please, give me more tea”, “Give me some more tea, will you?”, “Can I get some more tea?” (2002: 157)
Austin proposed the performative hypothesis, which maintains that behind each utterance or sentence occur performative verbs . These performative verbs include “to warn”, “to promise”, “to admit”, “to beg”, “to command”, “to suggest”, and “to thank” and these verbs make illocutionary force distinct and clear (Cutting 2002: 16, Cruse 2006: 168).
The third level is perlocutionary act which is “a speech act which depends on the production of a specific effect” (Cruise 2002: 168). It also says “what is done by uttering words” thus I shows the addressee’s...