Paper!

1056 words - 5 pages

Keystone species hold together communities by helping to structure and maintain their habitat. The concept behind a keystone species is that they support species diversity through their presence, activities and abundance within the community (Mills et.al. 1993). If a disturbance happens within the community and the keystone species disappears, the organization and diversity drastically shifts. To be defined as a keystone species, there are few characteristics a species must have. The first is that their presence within the community must help structure and assist the diversity of their community (Mills et.al. 1993). The second is that they must have some importance to their community in relation to the other species who live there (Mills et.al 1993). The keystone species are at the top of the community structure, with few, if any, predators. They control the population density of the primary consumer who consumer the primary producer (Mills et.al. 1993). A common example of a keystone species that have been widely studied is sea otters, which typically live in tidal areas off the coast of West Coast of the United States and Alaska.
Sea otters, or Enhydra lutris, are keystone species to kelp forests because of their importance in maintaining the food web structure. They are top marine predators that are easy to observe because they live close to the shore (Laidre and Jameson 2006). They are carnivores because their average diet consists of benthic invertebrates such as sea urchins, turban snails, red urchins, bivalves and chitons (Duggins 1980). Otters typically have an up to thirty percent daily nutritional requirement of their body mass per day (Laidre and Jameson 2006). They prefer to eat urchins because it allows them to maintain their high metabolism (Laidre and Jameson 2006). The preferred prey for otters is sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus spp., because they offer the otters a high caloric intake per urchin eaten. These sea urchins consume a lot of algae and have the capability to eat large amounts of the kelp forests (Estes and Palmisano 1974) and are considered the primary consumers in the community structure. Sea urchins are able to last a long time with a reduced food intake through several adaptations to their biotic and abiotic environment (Duggins 1980). .
A unique characteristic of sea otters is that they forage for their food in a number of different habitat types, ranging from rocky subtidal reefs to sand or mud-bottom estuaries (Laidre and Jameson 2006). Depending on which habitats they live in, sea otters will consumer whatever is closest to them. If they are found in rocky habitats, they will consume sea urchins, but if they are in the soft-bottom substrate, they will eat clams and other bivalves (Laidre and Jameson 2006).
Sea otters are responsible for maintaining the food web within the...

Find Another Essay On PAPER!

paper

1257 words - 5 pages connection with the evidence may be called to testify in court. The chain of custody should be kept to a minimum to maintain control of the items and avoid confusion. Use of a proper seal as noted in the procedure for using chain of custody will decrease the likelihood of contamination. The probability of altering a finger print or contaminating DNA is reduced if an evidence item is enclosed in the proper container (i.e. paper bag or envelop

paper

842 words - 4 pages education no matter what economical or religious background they are from. It has also been recognize that this education that is the child right should also be of the highest of standards. Before the year 2005 there were not any policy standards regulating early childhood education services in my country Trinidad and Tobago, it is only in the year 2005 that after consultation with various stakeholders that a draft white paper outlining

paper

2131 words - 9 pages What student would not like to write a huge paper within in an hour instead of four hours? Adderal is a cognitive enhancing stimulant; according to Danielle Bickelmann Susie Lomelino “[it] is a drug widely reported to increase alertness, concentration and overall cognitive performance, while decreasing fatigue – but it is also a drug widely abused across college campuses” (Highly Addictive Nature of Prescription 1). “Adderall is a synthetic drug

paper - 2258 words

2258 words - 10 pages that cut across and encompass multiple national terrains” (p. 23). Transnational linkages and feelings of multiple belonging can be developed in several fields. Mazzucato (2008) for example demonstrates how migrants’ feelings of double engagement mark the economic field, through spending patterns that affect both home and host country. However, in this paper the focus is on the political field. Keeping the definition of transnationalism in mind, we

paper - 2215 words

2215 words - 9 pages exercise at all, neither in an outdoor or indoor area (Wong et al., 2007). In this literature paper we will be focusing on the evidence found in detailed and its implications for avoiding exercising outdoors at certain conditions. Research seems to consistently providing with results that children that are involved in active outdoor sports are at higher risk of developing respiratory diseases with higher exposure to air pollutants (Timones et al., 2002

paper - 2209 words

2209 words - 9 pages This paper serves as an exploration of eating preferences and behaviors and how that correlates with an individual’s identity. Specifically, I am interested in examining why we eat what we do. For example, do I eat desert after every meal because I think it tastes good, because I am a woman, or is it simply because I have the financial means to? It is possible that all of these factors are at play when it comes to my food preferences. Individual

paper

1624 words - 6 pages “Lets go smoke some weed man” now when that question gets asked to you, you might have to say no. Why is that? You think of the consequences that could come to you if you do it and get caught. As of now pot is illegal and most parents don’t accept there kid smoking weed. So in this paper I will tell you why pot should be legal. I will also give some things that have been said negative and I will disprove them. I will also discuss about hemp

Paper

1739 words - 7 pages as an emerging area of inquiry with agencies such as World Bank and the OECD. The thrust of this paper however, is to emphasise the necessity to build social capital in developing world to empower the communities to have sufficient resources to hold their governments accountable and to facilitate their entry into market economies. To begin, I will be defining some of the basic terms used in the argument to provide theoretical grounding

paper - 934 words

934 words - 4 pages In "The Virtue of Selfishness" Ayn Rand argues that self-interest is the norm of ethics. Perhaps the strongest argument Rand gives for this claim relies on the argument that it is up to every individual to decide what values his or her life needs. Since it is important to know what morals one should have, or if one should even have any. In this paper I will argue that this argument fails because a self-interested person will belittle the

Paper

702 words - 3 pages to bear arms hinges on the establishment of a state militia. However, the historical and legal context in which the document was written must be considered in order to understand the amendment. Following the Revolutionary War, private citizens feared that a standing federal army could perform a coup on the nationally elected government. In response to these fears, James Madison responded in Federalist Paper 46 that a militia of armed citizens

Paper

895 words - 4 pages between local elites and external organizations. The last element is that there is a string attached to economic aid. In this paper, I will examine one of these Post-Communist nations, Russia, and using the dependency theory, will determine whether Russia is a high or low dependent nation. Using Way’s and Levitsky’s study, Linkage, Leverage, and the Post-Communist Divide, the determination of Russia’s dependency will come from linkage and

Similar Essays

Paper 1383 Words

1383 words - 6 pages scissors closely to the other hand that is holding the paper. The teacher should step in and reach out to the child who is struggling and assist the child by explaining to the child how to hold the scissor, where the other hand should go to hold the paper, and how to move the hand holding the scissors. The teacher should explain to the child that the fingers holding the scissors (the thumb and the index finger) should move up and down to move

Paper 881 Words

881 words - 4 pages Evaluation Sheet for Lab Reports Brad TaylorWhen all else fails follow the directionsThis sheet is provided to help guide you in writing your lab report in a scientific format. The paper should be type written, double spaced (this leaves room for comments), single space where indicated below, with tables, figures, and references as needed. A look at several journal papers will go a long way in answering the many "how to" questions that will

Paper 1007 Words

1007 words - 4 pages Running head: METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY PAPER 1 METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY PAPER 5 PHL 215 Metaphysics and Epistemology PaperEpistemology and Metaphysics Schools Paper Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper that includes the following information: Explain the historical development for each of the following schools of thought: o Skepticism o Rationalism o Empiricism o Realism o Idealism o Materialism o Determinism o Existentialism Day

Pa Per

1670 words - 7 pages out his music on paper for the musicians to read, notating notes with dots and accents and grouping them into particular beats, measures, and sequences to produce a swinging rhythm that defined Morton’s works. Morton was essentially the first person to write jazz down on paper with the crucial elements of jazz included and he promptly took credit by claiming he was the “inventor” of jazz. The notion of notating jazz opened new doors because now