Paranoia Personality Disorder Essay

1292 words - 6 pages

Because Paranoia belong to personality disorder, is important to understand what personality disorder is. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM 5, 2013), it is characterized by repeatedly behaviors that differ noticeably from what is expected in the cultural environment of the individual; this behaviors are persistent, steady over the time, inflexible and tend to lead to distress or impairment, as well. Usually, personality disorder start while the person in an adolescent or an early adult. Paranoia belong to the cluster A, which mean that paranoiac person tend to be odd and eccentric. If paranoia belong to personality disorder is redundant to say that ...view middle of the document...

The Individual tend to “reads hidden demeaning”. S/he never forgets verbal abuse, harms or slights made to his or her. The individual notice attacks, whether against his or her status or persona, that are not obvious to others and counterattack quickly and angrily. Last but not less, s/he has frequent doubts regarding to the trustworthy of significant other with baseless. Basically, the behaviors that paranoiac people present are being hyper-vigilant, lack of trust in others and quickness to perceive attacks and counterattack. All these characteristics plays an important role in the way as their interaction with others. For instance, because they are hyper-vigilant, they prone to be in guarded, keep all their stuff in secret, lack of gentle feeling, hostile and sarcastic, ceaselessly. It provokes that others respond to them in a hostile way; behavior that will be used to confirm paranoiac original expectation of the world: dangerous place where everybody is malevolent. Also, the paranoiac people’ personality is shape by their constantly lack of trust. Namely, that’s why, they show a disproportionate need to be autonomous and have a high degree of control over every situation that may happen. In addition, it is common to find this people in frequent legal dispute because their quickness to perceive attack and counterattack (DSM 5, 2013).
Cause
Lamentably, there are not enough research about paranoia personality disorder that could explain the reasons why some people become paranoiac while others do not; however, we can say that the cause of paranoia are based on the multi-dimensional approach. This approach states that biological, psychological and social factors play an important role in the development of abnormal behavior. In the one hand, there are research that link paranoia biological causes with schizophrenia’s one, but how I formerly state there are not enough research that support it, yet. In the same line, the psychology approach do not know why these people develop all those fake believes about their world (Durand, V. M., & Barlow, D. H. 2013). On the other hands, family plays an essential role in the development of paranoia in individual according to the practice experience of the psychiatrist Kantor (2004). All what Kantor states, in his book Understanding Paranoia: a Guide for Professionals, Families, and Sufferers, about paranoia can be associated with three psychological theories: operant conditioning, observational learning and inferiority complex. Two out three of this theories suggest that paranoia behavior can be learned.
Operant Conditioning Theory
The behaviorist B.F Skinner through his experiment with what is known as the “Skinner Box” create operant conditioning theory. In general, he states that the consequences that follow our behavior may elicit whether an increase in the behavior’s frequency (reinforcement) or a decrease in it (punishment) (Chance, P., & Krause, M. A. 2009)....

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