Loss is inevitably a recurring theme in the human experience. According to Simpson (1953, as cited by Robinson & McKenna, 1998), it is notable that the word ‘loss’ is derived from the Latin word ‘damnum,’ meaning damage and as such it implies injury. We lose many things over the course of a lifetime, and whether perceived or actual, loss can affect the individual in a variety of ways. In the outpatient pediatric caregiver and parent population, it is especially important to define loss and its’ affects, and integrate more impactful methods of intervention for these persons experiencing types of loss. In doing so, parents and caregivers will be better able to cope with their loss, and possibly enjoy a more fulfilling life following loss. This not only improves quality of life for the parent, but also for current and subsequent surviving children of these parents. In this concept analysis, we will look at parental loss pertaining to infants and children in the initially inpatient turned outpatient hospital setting, from a psychology, education, and nursing perspective. We will then integrate these three disciplines to ascertain optimal outcomes for the aforementioned population.
Review of Literature
What follows is an in-depth review of the literature, describing loss from the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. Though, they maintain varied approaches to the subject matter, the end result of optimal patient outcomes is supported.
Stein, et al. (2009)studied persons that experienced loss through death, relationship termination, and decline in physical and/or mental health. As a consequence of the loss, many participants found that they pursued self- improvement, education, enhancing personal relationships, independence, employment, happiness, and spiritual fulfillment (Stein, et al., 2009). We consider these to be positive and effective coping mechanisms for persons experiencing loss, however, these consequences were not included in the antecedent, criteria, consequences table, as they usually require a bit of time to manifest. Generally, grief and sadness as well as other related consequences are more typical as an immediate result of loss, and then as time passes and the loss is processed. the individual is able to reconcile the loss and achieve positive results.
Reynolds, Stack, and Houle (2011) studied the consequence grief, stating that it manifests as normal acute grief, integrated grief, and complicated grief; with acute grief being a mixture of a trauma and separation response, integrated grief being the ability to accept and move on with intermittent thoughts concerning the deceased, and complicated grief occurring when the normal grieving process has not taken place, over a prolonged period of time. In studying loss, the literature stands by grief as the primary manifestation of loss, with other consequences stemming from or born out of grief. Subsequently, the Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ) and the...