Bowlby, the originator of attachment theory, claimed that during the child’s early age, he depends only on his mother who is his benefactor providing an environment and orientation for him; she is also his connection to the world and provides the safety he need. Upon a child’s learning of those skills, the parent transfers all those roles to the child in a slow and gradual process until he reaches maturity (Bretherton, 1992). This shows how parenting and attachment can shape the life of an infant in preparation for his adult life. Although Bowlby used mother and parent, a broader view would encompass caregivers especially in today’s American society where mothers have ...view middle of the document...
Additionally the type of parenting employed in the development of a child will ultimately determine the quality and the types of social relationships the child would be able to establish as an adult (Susskind, 2005).
In her article parenting styles and its correlates, Darling (1999) stated, “parenting is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that work individually and together to influence child outcomes.” Parents or caregivers involvement or lack there of in the development or rearing of the child has an impact and a lasting effect on the life of the child. Therefore there are two important elements that need to be capture when looking into parenting in general these are how demanding and responsive the parent or caregiver is to the needs of the developing child. The demandingness deals with behavioral control and applicability of rules requiring children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, and disciplinary efforts; and parent responsiveness involves parental warmth and support helping foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion (Darling, 1999). Taking in account the balance between parent responsiveness and demandingness, Diana Baumrind identified four different parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved parenting styles. These parenting styles are only types, which cannot be used to determine if the parent is good parent or bad parent (Darling, 1992). For the purpose of this paper, I will be considering only two styles: authoritative and indulgent.
Authoritative Parenting Style
The authoritative parents are both responsive and demanding. They set specific and clear standards and monitor it. They foster personal leadership on their children by being neither intrusive nor restrictive. The encourage independence and age appropriate decision-making, however the maintain and control the limitations that they placed. They want to bring up balance kids, who are assertive, self-regulated, and high self-esteem. Consequently their disciplinary methods are more supportive than they are punitive (Darling, 1999). Additionally researches have shown that authoritative parents who engage in discussions and debates with their children, help them learn how to negotiate and engage in discussions. As a result, they are more likely to be socially competent, responsible, and autonomous (Kopko, 2007).
Indulgent Parenting Style
Indulgent parents are also referred to as permissive parent. These parents are more responsive than they are demanding. They are warm and very understanding of their children, which prevent them from saying no when they need to. This is the type of parenting that display leniency and does not promote maturity, and the parents are non confrontational. They do not set standards so the do not have any expectation on the limitations their children supposed to restrict themselves. However this type of parents...