As a child grows up it may appears as a simple matter of blowing out a different number of candles each year. However, there are multiple psychological factors involved in this process. The factors include parents’ role in the child’s life, peer pressure, the culture in which the child is raised, and television. These factors work together to shape a child’s social development.
Parents are seen as a child’s role model and support since birth. As a role model, their actions teach children the difference between right and wrong. As a support, they provide love and care. In addition to love, care, and knowledge, they exert control and provide discipline. Not all parents are the same because they are different individuals with different perspectives on how they want to raise their kids. Because of these perspectives, the types of parents are but not limited to authoritarian parents, authoritative parents, permissive parents, and neglecting parents.
Authoritarian parents, though severity varies, are those who exert complete control over their children and expect complete and unquestioned obedience. They often punish misbehavior and do not reason with policies. This type of parenting is unsympathetic and reserved creating space between them and their children. The results of this type of parenting style include but not limited to deficiency of social skills and low performance levels in some children and higher academic achievement in others such as in the Asian culture.
On a less severe end yet still strict are authoritative parents. Unlike authoritarian parents, authoritative parents set reasonable and achievable standards with limits. In addition, this parenting style encourages reasoning and discussion of rules. Because they allow discussion they are seen to be more responsive, supportive, and warm. As a result, children with authoritative parents show association towards higher performance, higher self-esteem, and more self-controlled as well as socially competent.
However, there are also parents who make few rules that are hardly reinforced. Those parents are known as permissive parents. They show more affection than control over their children, allowing the children to take control of their own actions. Children raised by permissive parents, not all, show strong correlation to impulsive behaviors and limited self-control. Then there are permissive parents who show no affection or interest in their children’s lives. Those parents are the neglecting parents. Neglecting parents are not involved in their children’s lives, resulting in social issues such as difficulty in social relationships. Neglectfulness has been correlated to delinquent in early teen years such as drugs or alcohol abuse.
Other than parents, peers play a factor in development as well. Peer relationships are influences are biasedly view as negative, however they can be positive as well. Peer relationships act as socializing assembly with ideal behaviors, languages,...