Parkinson Disease (Pd) Essay

2728 words - 11 pages


Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by physical and psychological disabilities. This disorder was named after James Parkinson, an English physician who first described it as shaking palsy in 1817 (Goetz, Factr, and Weiner, 2002). Jean- Martin Charcot, who was a French neurologist, then progressed and further refined the description of the disease and identified other clinical features of PD (Goetz, Factr, and Weiner, 2002). PD involves the loss of cells that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine in a part of the brain stem called the substansia nigra, which results in several signs and symptoms (Byrd, Marks, and Starr, 2000). It is manifested clinically by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, hypokinesia, and postural instability. PD is a common disorder, affecting at least 1% of people by age 70 with it being 1.5 times more common in men than in women (Hauser, et al. 2010). The incidence has been estimated to be 4.5-21 cases per 100,000 population per year, with most studies estimating a prevalence of approximately 120 per 100,00 (Hauser, et al. 2010).


PD is known to be idiopathic, however, many studies have found that a combination of genetic and environmental factors are associated with the development of PD. Environmental risk factors include the use of pesticides, living in a rural environment, consumption of well water, and proximity to industrial plants or quarries. The genetic causes also have been studied and it was found that a genetic cause for the development of PD accounts for 5% of all cases (Hauser et al. 2010). Medications that block dopamine receptors also are considered to be a cause for the development of Parkinson disease. Interestingly, it was also found that people who have suffered a head injury are four times more likely to develop PD than those who have never had a head injury (Adams and Victor, 1985). Although many theories and hypotheses were raised as to why this happens, there is no solid information supporting the physiological cause of this, but it is surely one of various factors that may lead to the development of PD.

Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

It has been known that PD is a disorder affecting the basal ganglia. The term basal ganglia is generally applied to a collection of nuclei situated deep within the cerebral hemispheres, lying laterally to the thalamus (Gazzeniga, George, and Mangun, 2008). The basal ganglia are important subcortical structures. They are composed of five nuclei: caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra. These nuclei are not thought of a single anatomical entity; rather, they form a functional unity whose contribution is greatly to motor control. Interestingly, this system does not influence movement through spinal cord pathways, but rather acts as part of a feedback loop to all areas of the cerebral cortex, with primary input into motor areas (Aird,...

Find Another Essay On Parkinson Disease (PD)

Parkinson's disease Essay

1002 words - 5 pages . Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder that as many as 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with each year excluding the thousands of cases that go undetected (2013). This disease was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson, a British physician who published a paper on what he called “the shaking palsy”. Later on his descriptions of the major signs and symptoms of the disease would bear his name (NINDS 2013). As of right now

Parkinson’s Disease Essay

1485 words - 6 pages Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and is classified as a movement disorder with the presence of the motor symptoms bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity. The literature on the management of PD motor symptoms focuses extensively on the medical treatment and outlines the vast advancements that drug therapy has seen over the past 40 years. There are beneficial outcomes of medicinal therapy on the

What is Parkinson´s Disease?

1190 words - 5 pages diseases and it is important to inspect the neural structures that are affected as well as the possible pathogenesis, in order to determine what the syndrome may be. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive syndrome of the CNS that plagues the elderly and has been seen to be more prominent in the male population than the female population (Lees et al., 2009). This disease is a challenging and pervasive syndrome and unfortunately, there are not any

Parkinson’s Disease

683 words - 3 pages Parkinson’s disease commonly known, as “PD” is a syndrome called motor system disorders. The cause of this syndrome is the loss of dopamine - producing brain cells. There are four main types of “PD”. They are, shaking in the hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face, stiffness of the arms or legs, slow movement, and instability of posture. Usually, people over the age of fifty are affected by Parkinson’s disease (1). The diagnosis of PD is based on the

Quantitative Study: Burdens among Parkinson’s disease Caregiver

1360 words - 5 pages Introduction “Parkinson’s is the second most common neurological disease after Alzheimer’s. It has been described as a chronic, progressive, neurological disorder, which generally not life-threatening but is incurable (Magennis & Corry, 2013). Parkinson disease has no antidote but has altered treatments. Patients require caregivers help when PD gradually starts to affects motor, cognitive and emotional functioning. Patients are hindered from

Parkinson disease

1176 words - 5 pages Parkinson's disease (PD) is a one of the most common neurodegenerative disease. Some of its major features are resting tremors, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia or slowing of movement and postural instability. The disease is associated with the loss of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra(SN), a region of the midbrain. The cause of this cell loss is still unknown; however some hypotheses have been related the cause to genetic factor

Parkinson's Disease

3767 words - 15 pages Parkinson's Disease In 1817, James Parkinson published his famous treatise: "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy," describing the symptoms which now collectively bear his name. Although many scientists before his time had described various aspects of motor dysfunction (ataxia, paralysis, tremor) Parkinson was the first to collect them into a common syndrome; one which he believed formed a distinctive condition. His sixty-six page essay

Discuss Parkinson's disease and criticize South African Parkinson's Association Phamplet

3910 words - 16 pages affect quality of life .The south African Parkinson association pamphlet has focused on management of mobility in PD and little attention has been devoted to psychosocial issues .This paucity of the south African Parkinson association pamphlet is attributed to the belief that if motor symptoms are treated , psychosocial aspects of the disease will spontaneously improve . Quality of life has been reported to be the primary concern of patients with

Understanding Parkinsons Disease

829 words - 3 pages Understanding Parkinsons Disease Parkinson's Disease or PD is a common and progressive brain disorder that results from degeneration of nerve cells in the portion of the midbrain that controls body movements. Occurring mostly in older adults that are over sixty years of age, the disease is characterized by gradual, progressive muscle rigidity, tremors and clumsiness. When Parkinson's disease occurs, degenerative changes are found in an

Parkinson´s Disease

1734 words - 7 pages ancient Egypt, and it has also made an appearance in the Christian Bible. There is no clear evidence of it until the 17th century (All About Parkinson's Disease). Even though it has been here for a while now, the disease was not always called Parkinson’s. In fact it was called paralysis agitans or shaking palsy when James Parkinson wrote an essay on it. It is thought that he was the first to discuss Parkinson’s disease and it was later renamed to

Review of Research Paper on Parkinson's Disease Treatment

2378 words - 10 pages paper “‘Rejuvenation’ protects neurons in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease,” Chen and researchers find that older neurons in the SNc are unusually reliant on calcium channels and that after blocking these channels, the cells are “rejuvenated” and begin acting like their juvenile counterparts; as a result, these cells become protected from Parkinson’s disease. Their research, thus, points not only to a possible cause of neuronal death in PD but

Similar Essays

The Neurobiology Of Parkinson's Disease Essay

1519 words - 6 pages those of European descent (PD Web, 1998). It was first formally identified by British physician James Parkinson in 1817 as "The Shaking Palsy", however, it is thought that the disease has been around for thousands of years. Described as early as 5000 B.C. in the Indian Ayurvedic medicinal tradition and in the Nei Jing, the first Chinese medical text 2500 years ago, Parkinson's disease has been a constant challenge to public health around the

Parkinson's Disease Essay

1297 words - 6 pages Addressing the question of nature vs. nurture, Dr. Sonia Mathur states that “Genetics loads the gun, environment pulls the trigger” (Mathur). Parkinson’s Disease (PD) exhibits this pattern, with the vast majority of PD cases being idiopathic, likely the result of combined genetic and environmental factors. While many researchers previously sought symptom-specific treatment, recent breakthroughs open the door for the discovery of genetic and

Parkinson's Disease Essay

1650 words - 7 pages Parkinson's Disease Parkinson’s Disease (PD), "the shaking palsy" first described by James Parkinson in 1817, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which affects in upwards of 1.5 million Americans. The disease begins to occur around age 40 and has incidence with patient age. One survey found that PD may affect 1% of the population over 60. Incidence seems to be more prominent in men, and tends to progress to incapacity and death over

Parkinson’s Disease Essay

1343 words - 5 pages a higher rate of PD, but the results are still not definite. (Zigmond, 2002) There are many things that are thought to cause this disease but nothing is found to be concrete and therefore there is no definitive etiology of Parkinson’s disease. Pathogeneses James Parkinson founded this disease in 1817 when he wrote a paper on the clinical symptoms that he had seen.(Nussbaum, 1997) The Disease is a neurodegenerative(loss of a functioning neuron