Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting primarily the patient’s motor function. The disease is characterized by rigidity, tremor at rest, bradykinesis, and decreased postural reflexes (Bollinger, Cowan, LaFontaine, Ronai, 2012). Parkinson disease was largely documented and brought to the forefront by James Parkinson, who published an article discussing the condition in 1817 (Lees, 2007). While great strides in understanding and treatment have been made, Parkinson disease is still considered an idiopathic disease (Lau & Breteler, 2006). Many areas of the disease process have been noted, but no one has been marked as the primary causative process, as well as little has been solidified in diagnostic procedures to identify Parkinson Disease in living patients. Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, falling behind Alzheimer’s, and effects 340,000 People in the United States (Bollinger, Cowan, LaFontaine,& Ronai, 2012).
The disease process of Parkinson disorder is still unknown due to the difficulty of diagnosis and the complexity of the neurological disorder. However many factors have been identified pathology of Parkinson’s.
The supporting cells of the central neurological system are the ganglia cells, basal is in reference to their location at the base of the cerebral hemispheres (Obeso, Rodríguez‐Oroz, Benitez‐Temino, Blesa, Guridi, Marin, & Rodriguez, 2008). The abnormalities of these cells are the most widely accepted, understanding the motor dysfunction found in patients suffering with Parkinson’s. These basal ganglia cells are innervated via the dopaminergic system, as well as their target locations such as the thalamus and brainstem (Obeso, Rodríguez‐Oroz, Benitez‐Temino, Blesa, Guridi, Marin, & Rodriguez, 2008). The most important feature of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra, where loss of cells in the substantia nigra has demonstrated to interrupt the basal ganglia system, also known was the extrapyramidal system, and cause of a major motor symptom of Parkinson’s, bradykinesia (Lees, 2007). The substantia nigra is where the neurotransmitter dopamine is made by cells. Neurons between the substantia nigra and the stratum send messages via dopamine. As the cells of the sustantia nigra deteriorate in Parkinsons so does the levels of dopamine in the brain, which is necessary for sending messages to other areas of the brain for movement control (Obeso, Rodríguez‐Oroz, Benitez‐Temino, Blesa, Guridi, Marin, & Rodriguez, 2008). The decrease in dopamine production also changes the dopamine to acetylcholine relationship in the brain, which the striatum require to function properly. While the striatum is very complex system which involves signal suppression and enhancement within the brain, the altered ratio of dopamine and acetylcholine can cause some tracts to be under suppressed and over suppressed (Obeso, Rodríguez‐Oroz, Benitez‐Temino,...