This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Parkinson's Disease Essay

3767 words - 15 pages

Parkinson's Disease

In 1817, James Parkinson published his famous treatise: "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy," describing the symptoms which now collectively bear his name. Although many scientists before his time had described various aspects of motor dysfunction (ataxia, paralysis, tremor) Parkinson was the first to collect them into a common syndrome; one which he believed formed a distinctive condition. His sixty-six page essay contained five chapters describing symptoms, differential diagnoses, causality, possible treatments, and prospects for future study. What is most intriguing concerning Parkinson’s analysis (besides its consistent accuracy) is the fact that his clinical observations and inferences were made by watching the movements of six elderly males at a distance along the streets of London.

The symptoms seen in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are of two distinct types: (1) a degeneration of normal actions and movements coupled with; (2) the appearance of abnormal-type behaviors. Positive symptoms are those behaviors not usually seen in normal people; since they occur often in patients with PD, they are thought to be mechanistically inhibited by normal physiological systems. However, when these systems degenerate or become damaged, they are released and abnormal behavior is the result. The main abnormalities seen in Parkinsonian patients are resting tremor, muscular rigidity, and anesthesia. Resting tremors occur while the patient is motionless; the symptoms disappear during activity or when the patient is asleep. They most often encompass alternating movements of the limbs, hands and head; for instance, one diagnostic tremor known as "pill-rolling," consists of repetitive rolling motions of the forefinger past the thumb. Other involuntary movements include postural changes which are made either as a response to inhibit tremor and muscle stiffness, or attempted unconsciously, without any apparent explanation (the latter is usually the case). These simple movements are referred to as akathesia and can occur during inactivity as well as with motion. Muscular rigidity, on the other hand, reveals an increase in tonicity of both flexors and extensors, especially in the distal limbs. Resistance to movement is seen to a point. However, if sufficient force is used, the muscles give and movement occurs briefly over a short distance. Rigidity is then re-initiated after the movement has stopped. This form of stepwise motions is referred to as cogwheel rigidity; its severity is variable depending on localization of the lesion, extent of neural damage, and progression of the disease over time. It is culminated by an increased slowness with difficulty beginning and continuing most every kind of movement.

Negative symptoms are not indicative of abnormal movements or actions. Rather, they are classified as revealing an absence or inability to perform certain behaviors. Such disorders fall into particular categories based on the type of...

Find Another Essay On Parkinson's Disease

Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Essay

1654 words - 7 pages Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease is a degenerative disorder of the nervous system. Parkinson's is a disease that may happen in younger people, but the risk mainly increases with age. This is because many of the cellular systems in the brain are difficult to renew by themselves while there are trillions of nerve cells in the brain to compensate for the loss of these cells. For example, in Parkinson's disease the

The Neurobiology of Parkinson's Disease Essay

1519 words - 6 pages The Neurobiology of Parkinson's Disease In neuroscience it is assumed that the central nervous system governs and defines all aspects of behavior (Grobstein, 1998). Therefore, the brain, the hub of the central nervous system, is responsible for integrating all sensory and motor patterning. To understand the mechanisms of neurobiology it is often useful to observe the nervous system at the level of the neuron. Integration and communication

Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome

732 words - 3 pages Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome Parkinson's Disease is a literally crippling neurodegenerative disorder, manifested in about 1% of the aged population. People who have Parkinson's Disease gradually lose control of their movements; specific symptoms include, "tremor, slowness of movement, stiffness, difficulty in walking, and loss of balance." (1) Evidence strongly suggests that Parkinson's Disease is the result of severe cell

Parkinson's Disease and Effective Medication

1677 words - 7 pages History of Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's has been around since the beginning of time. However, it has not always been know as Parkinson's disease. A London doctor by the name of James Parkinson first brought attention to the subject by publishing a medical essay. The publication titled "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" help established Parkinson's disease as an accepted medical condition. Dr. Parkinson intended the publication to spark

Discuss Parkinson's disease and criticize South African Parkinson's Association Phamplet

3910 words - 16 pages In 1817 , a London physician named James Parkinson wrote the first information of Parkinson's disease in his essay of the shaking palsy , and now in just under 200 years it has become the second most common neurogenic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the world population over 50 years old. However very few people know what Parkinson's is and its influence to the everyday life of a suffer. So in this essay critically evaluate the Parkinson

Effects, Cure, and Causes of Parkinson's Disease

1126 words - 5 pages ://'s-disease/who-discovered-parkinson's-disease.html http

Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders

2053 words - 9 pages , Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophies, myoclonus, brief, rapid outbursts of movement, progressive supranuclear palsy, restless legs syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, tics, Tourette's syndrome, tremor, Wilson disease, dystonia, which causes involuntary body movement, and Parkinson's disease. Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, and tics are one of the most widely known of these disorders, known to impair people of movements and rob them

Parkinson's Disease: The Stem Cell Approach

2379 words - 10 pages Applications: Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research." Stem Cell Information. N.p., November 1999. Web. 12 March 2014. Christenson, David. "Patients, Not Politics." Stem Cell Research. Ed. Jennifer L. Skancke. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Press, 2009. 66-72. Print. 4 March 2014. Dodiya, Hemraj B., Jeffrey H. Kordower and Dustin R. Wakeman. "Cell Transplantation and Gene Therapy in Parkinson's Disease." Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine (2011): 132

Parkinson's Disease...Everything you will ever need to know about Parkinson's Disease

661 words - 3 pages In the United States about one million people are believed to suffer from Parkinson's disease. About 50,000 new cases are reported every year. Many things are associated with Parkinson's disease.Parkinson's disease is a very serious disease. It is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system that results from degeneration of nerve cells in a region of the brain that controls movement. This degeneration creates a shortage of the brain

Review of Research Paper on Parkinson's Disease Treatment

2378 words - 10 pages more serious states wherein treatment is ineffective and also, perhaps with further research, even eliminate the disease from ever emerging again. References "Alternative Medicine and Parkinson's." Parkinson's Disease Guide. 1 Nov 2007 . "Dietary Guidelines." Parkinson's Disease. Holistic Online. 1 Nov 2007 . http

Treatments of Parkinson's Disease

3732 words - 15 pages Introduction Although Parkinson’s disease does not have a known cure, there are ways to treat and manage it. There are many components of treatments of Parkinson’s disease such as patient’s age, cognitive, life style, and symptom severity (Lyons & Pahwa, 2011, p. 29). With those components known, treatment can be modified based on the patient’s case. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease includes prescription drugs and non-pharmacologic treatment

Similar Essays

Parkinson's Disease Essay

1297 words - 6 pages researchers for nearly two centuries. Currently, the only consistent link between all PD cases is the loss of dopamine producing neurons. In the future, the causes of this dreaded disease will hopefully be better understood and appropriately classified in order to expedite the treatment Works Cited Golbe, Lawrence I. "Alpha-Synuclein and Parkinson's Disease." Ed. Manuchair S. Ebadi and Ronald Pfeiffer. Parkinson's Disease. Boca Raton: CRC, 2004. 117

Parkinson's Disease Essay

689 words - 3 pages Parkinson's Disease Damage to Broca's area in the frontal lobe causes difficulty in speaking and writing, a problem known as Broca's aphasia. Injury to Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe results in an inability to comprehend spoken language, called Wernicke's aphasia. Cerebral palsy is a broad term for brain damage sustained close to birth that permanently affects motor function. The damage may take place either in the developing

Parkinson's Disease Essay

1002 words - 5 pages to substitute for prescription medications but these tend to be more expensive and have side effects and interactions with other drugs. Creatine is one compound that is over-the-counter under scientific research and has capabilities of increasing levels of phosphocreatine which is an energy source in muscle and the brain. Works Cited "History of Parkinson's Disease." History of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease Essay

1650 words - 7 pages Parkinson's Disease Parkinson’s Disease (PD), "the shaking palsy" first described by James Parkinson in 1817, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which affects in upwards of 1.5 million Americans. The disease begins to occur around age 40 and has incidence with patient age. One survey found that PD may affect 1% of the population over 60. Incidence seems to be more prominent in men, and tends to progress to incapacity and death over