This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Parkinson's Disease And Tourette's Syndrome Essay

732 words - 3 pages

Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome

Parkinson's Disease is a literally crippling neurodegenerative disorder, manifested in about 1% of the aged population. People who have Parkinson's Disease gradually lose control of their movements; specific symptoms include, "tremor, slowness of movement, stiffness, difficulty in walking, and loss of balance." (1) Evidence strongly suggests that Parkinson's Disease is the result of severe cell loss in the substantia nigra. This brain structure is principally involved in the production of dopamine. (2) Dopamine, among other functions, is the neurotransmitter involved in initiation of movement. Hence, the link between dopaminergic cell loss and cessation of voluntary movement, as manifested in Parkinson's Disease, seems established. (3) However, the applicability of this link seems to not end with Parkinson's Disease. If a severe deficit in dopamine induces cessation of movement and baseline levels of dopamine make voluntary, normal movement possible, can an excess of dopamine, or increased effectiveness of dopamine, lead to involuntary manifestation of movement? Potentially, a marked excess, or increase in effectiveness, of dopamine will lead to a loss of control of movement, just as a shortage of dopamine will. However, in the former case, movement should be involuntarily manifested. If such manifestations indeed were observed, it would be interesting to see if, in fact, dopamine excess, or dopamine at all, plays a role.

Indeed, involuntary movements, commonly referred to as tics, are the primary symptoms of a disease called Tourette's Syndrome. The syndrome, named after the person who first described it, Gilles de la Tourette, "is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by motor tics (quick, involuntary movements that occur out of a background of normal motor activity)." (4) As to substantiate the postulation made above, Tourette's Syndrome should be the result of increased dopamine or enhanced dopamine effects in the relevant areas of the brain, i.e. where movement is planned or motor behavior is organized. Surely enough, research done on the basal ganglia, namely the striatum and the caudate nucleus, has revealed that dopamine indeed impacts on these areas more prominently in Tourette's patients than in unaffected controls. (5,6) The increased dopamine effect in Tourette's patients may be due to two mechanism. One, the patients may produce more dopamine, hence, their receptors are over-stimulated, leading to excessive neuronal...

Find Another Essay On Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome

Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders

2053 words - 9 pages , Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophies, myoclonus, brief, rapid outbursts of movement, progressive supranuclear palsy, restless legs syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, tics, Tourette's syndrome, tremor, Wilson disease, dystonia, which causes involuntary body movement, and Parkinson's disease. Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, and tics are one of the most widely known of these disorders, known to impair people of movements and rob them

Effects, Cure, and Causes of Parkinson's Disease

1126 words - 5 pages ://www.medicinenet.com/parkinsons_disease/page3.htm#what_are_the_symptoms_of_parkinsons_disease http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/parkinsonsdisease.html http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/default.htm?names-dropdown=ID http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/parkinsons-disease/basics/definition/con-20028488 Weiner, William J., Lisa M. Shulman, and Anthony E. Lang. Parkinson's Disease: A Complete Guide for Patients and Families

Alzheimer's Disease and Down's Syndrome

1439 words - 6 pages increases to almost 1 in 40 in children born to mothers over 40. Most individuals with Down?s Syndrome have characteristic features such as upward slanted eyes, broad flattened face, short neck, and a prominent tongue. Muscle coordination is often impaired in these individuals, resulting in uncoordinated posture and balance. Congenital heart disease is found in forty percent of these individuals, along with a near twenty fold increase in the risk of

Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome

4732 words - 19 pages Coronary Artery Disease andAcute Coronary SyndromeCoronary Artery Diseasea type of blood vessel disorder that is included in the general category of atherosclerosis.The term atherosclerosis means "fatty much" and "hard".It begins as soft deposits of fat that harden with age and is often referred to as hardening of the arteries.The atheromas (fatty deposits) have a preference for the coronary arteries.Etiology and PathoAtherosclerosis is the

Stem Cells and Parkinson's Disease

3079 words - 12 pages The goal of this paper is to compare the utility of adult, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to treat Parkinson’s disease. As such several things will be assessed, dosage of stemcells, improvement in motor function, in combination with the presence of α-synuclein proteins and cell survival. To give a short overview of the steps that will be taken to complete the study. Obtaining stem cells, whether adult, embryonic or

Contrast the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease with those of Parkinson's disease. What causes these different symptoms and how does this affect the treatment of these disorders?

3174 words - 13 pages until 1960 that changes in the brains of Parkinson's patients were discovered, making it possible to develop medication for the condition. The symptoms of PD often begin around the age of 55, and the disease is characterised by a decrease in spontaneous movement, gait difficulty, postural instability, rigidity, and tremors that get worse over time. In PD, production of a substance called dopamine (a neurotransmitter involved in passing messages

The Fragile X syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) disease comparation

3571 words - 14 pages shows an example of a pedigree with fragile X syndrome. It illustrates when a female carrier marries with a male non-carries theirs offspring's has half with the disease and half carriers either males or females. This make me realize that is the females who are passing the disease to their daughters and sons as they have an X chromosome affected. As a male's carrier, this is an exception to the principle of males' severity. This can be explained by

A two part biology assignment on diseases. Part A is discusses the history, causes, symptoms and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Part B is a proposal for counteracting a mad cow's disease epidemic

1470 words - 6 pages been given an especially high profile by celebrities who've been affected by it, like Michael J. Fox, Katherine Hepburn, Muhammad Ali, and Pope John Paul.Men and women alike are affected. The frequency of the disease is considerably higher in the over-50 age group, even though there is an alarming increase of patients of younger age. One in 10 of people diagnosed are under 40.There are a number of signs and symptoms related to Parkinson's disease

Tourette Syndrome: an overview

2569 words - 10 pages Tourette Syndrome: an overviewNot many people have heard of Gilles Tourette's Syndrome (GTS). It is a complex and intriguing disorder that displays distinct physical characteristics and unusual mental behaviour. It was the French neurologist Gilles de la Tourette who, in 1885, was the first to conduct a systematic study of the motor and vocal tics which are a hallmark of the syndrome. Over a century later the diagnostic criteria for GTS are

Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs

1027 words - 4 pages extreme stress in life. A study on relatives of individuals with schizophrenia has shown that genetic factors are possible. An example given is that of a child of two schizophrenic parents has a 45% chance of developing the disorder, and an identical twin holds a 48% chance (Pinel, 2007).Dopamine hypothesis was discovered when antipsychotic drugs started causing muscular tremors-identical to Parkinson's disease. Researchers theorized that

Tourette Syndrome Basics

1502 words - 7 pages , Ed. "Yale researchers find genetic link to Tourette cause." New Haven Register (CT) 08 Jan. 2014: Newspaper Source. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. "Neuroscience for Kids - Tourette Syndrome." Neuroscience for Kids - Tourette Syndrome. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. "Get Information." Quick Facts on Tourette's Disorder. Child Mind Institute, n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for

Similar Essays

Complete Analysis Of Tourette's Syndrome, A Genetic Disease

669 words - 3 pages Have you ever heard or seen a person scream out or jerk at random? These people could have a disorder called Tourette's Syndrome. This disorder is named after Georges Gilles de la Tourette, in 1857. Tourette was a neuropsychiatrist who was amazed by Sister Jeanne des Anges's illness when she was thrashing out at her friends, relatives, and random people and screaming out of the ordinary. Tourette and a colleague wrote an analysis about this

Parkinson's Disease And Effective Medication Essay

1677 words - 7 pages interest in others in hopes they may do further research on the disease. However, it took around 60 years after it was published before someone took interest in study of the disease. Jean Martin Charcot was next to bring awareness to the disease. He remarked at its importance and coined the name Parkinson's disease. In the 1960's, research led scientists to discover that Parkinson's patients' brains are chemically different. It showed patients

Parkinson's Disease And Tissue Transplants Essay

1434 words - 6 pages better opportunity for recovery than either treatment given by itself. While this paper focuses on fetal brain grafts as a means to treat Parkinsonism, research is also being conducted in conjunction with Alzheimer’s Disease, visual, frontal, and motor cortex lesions, hippocampal lesions, and many others (2,3) There are two current approaches to neural transplantation regarding Parkinson s; adrenal medullary and fetal brain grafts. Both

Discuss Parkinson's Disease And Criticize South African Parkinson's Association Phamplet

3910 words - 16 pages In 1817 , a London physician named James Parkinson wrote the first information of Parkinson's disease in his essay of the shaking palsy , and now in just under 200 years it has become the second most common neurogenic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the world population over 50 years old. However very few people know what Parkinson's is and its influence to the everyday life of a suffer. So in this essay critically evaluate the Parkinson