In this paper I will compare and contrast the presidential and parliamentary institutional structures. I will also explain how they differ in the relationship of the executive, legislature and judiciary. I will discuss how the Canadian system should be identified and if its organization changed over time. The impact of the constitutional changes of 1982 with the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and if it improved or eroded the quality of Canadian democracy will also be explained and in this paper.
A parliamentary system is “a system of governing in which there is a close interrelationship between the political executive (prime minister and Cabinet) and Parliament (the legislative or law-making body). He executive is generally composed of members of the House of Commons (the elected parliamentary body) and must maintain the support of the House of Commons.” (Mintz, 2012).
In a parliamentary system there is a responsible government which means that both the Cabinet and the prime minister who is the political executive are held accountable for the actions of the Parliament. For the Prime Minister and the Cabinet to remain in office must gain the support of the elected members of the Parliament. The Parliament in Britain is referred to as the Westminster system and the rule in this particular Parliament is a single party majority rule, executive dominance of Parliament, and an adversarial relationship between the governing party and the opposition (Mintz, 2012). India, Canada, Australia, and several Caribbean countries are made up based on the Westminster system of Britain but have a few differences. (Mintz, 2012).
Parliamentary systems usually have tight relationships of both legislative and executive powers. The power that the Cabinet and the prime minister have is limited. Ordinary members of the Parliament also have considerable roles. The Cabinet and the prime minister are responsible for the actions of the House of Commons. In the Westminster parliamentary system, the majority government is the measure and it aids and promotes forceful action by the government. It can also promote the liability of the government to the people, as appreciate or criticize the laws or actions of the government.
The Parliament has to approve new laws and the modifications of the current laws. The Cabinet and the prime minister propose the laws that are passed by the government. Taxing plans and government’s spending is presented by the Cabinet and the prime minister to the Parliament for approval. In current parliamentary systems, political parties play a central role in the operational process of the governing system. (Mintz, 2012). Majority government is when the prime minister’s party has the majority of the House of Commons; therefore a single party forms the government (Mintz, 2012).
If the members are not elected by a single party to a majority of seats in the House of Commons, one party may make a minority government. (Mintz, 2012). A minority government...