This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Pathology Of Clostridium Difficile Essay

1448 words - 6 pages

Description of Clostridium Difficile
Clostridium difficile, otherwise known as C. diff, is a species of spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria that is known to cause watery diarrhea. 1 The genus name, Clostridium refers to the spindle shape of the organism while Difficile means difficult in Latin due to the fact that this organism thrives in unfavorable conditions and is very difficult to isolate.4 The incidence of getting CDI has increased over the years due to new strains of increased toxin production of the bacteria and increased resistance to antibiotics.2 It is a gastrointestinal infection, and the most common cause of infectious diarrhea.1 C. difficile was first identified in the feces of healthy newborns back in the 1930’s and by 1935, it was considered normal flora. 2 During 1974, researchers conducted that about 21% of patients that were treated with an antibiotic called clindamyacin reported diarrhea and about 10% of them reported to have conducted pseudomembranous colitis as a side effect of this treatment. 2 It was in 1978 where C. diff had been known to cause anti-biotic associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. 2 It is known to form spores that resist many disinfectants; it also survives for several months on different surfaces.1 It is a common form of a nosocomial infection and the prevalence of becoming infected with C. diff is about 0-15% in a health care setting. 3 The spores survive well in environments such as soil, water and animals and is distributed worldwide. 4 CDI produces two toxins (Toxin A and B), which are cytotoxic and cause tissue necrosis.4

Transmission
C. difficile is highly contagious and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. 2 It also known to develop right after antibiotic use. Using antibiotics beforehand disrupts the normal flora contained in the intestines, which therefore promotes the proliferation of the C. diff bacteria. 2 The most common antibiotics associated with CDI include fluoroquinolones, penicillins and cephalosporins. Other factors that may increase the risk of getting an infection include increasing age; the use of a nasogastric tube and other related GI procedures and surgeries. 2 Since C. diff infections are a common nosocomial infection, constant exposure to healthcare workers increase the risk of transmitting this bacteria. 2 The most common places to find C. diff spores are toilets, commodes and 33% of hospital rooms that are occupied by someone who is asymptomatic of the infection. 2 Therefore, C. diff is most likely found in the stools of an asymptomatic hospital patient. 3 Spores survive from weeks to months on the surface of toilets, sinks and bed rails of hospital settings. 2

Virulence Factors and Mechanism of Pathogenicity
The spectrum of the severity of CDI starts off as benign diarrhea, which eventually progresses to colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. 3 It can also lead to complicated cases such as fever, shock, leukocytosis and ICU admission 3...

Find Another Essay On Pathology of Clostridium Difficile

Preventing Infections in a Hospital Environment

1289 words - 6 pages hospital surfaces and the estimated duration of their persistence. Type of bacteria, virus, or fungi Duration Clostridium difficile spores (bacteria) Up to 5 months Streptococcus pneumoniae (bacteria) 1 day-20 days Streptococcus pyogenes (bacteria) 3 days-6 months Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria, including MRSA) 7 days-7 months Candida albicans (fungus) 1 day-120 days Acinetobacter spp. 3 days-5 months Norovirus (virus) 8 hours-7 days Influenza

Health Associated Infections Essay

1764 words - 7 pages , and site care practice. Multidrug-resistant organisms can cause infections of the blood, skin, or organ systems. These infections can arise due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics, which can result in the microorganisms becoming more resistant to antibiotic therapy. Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus and Clostridium difficile are examples of this kind of infection. Health care employees need to know the different types of hospital

Cool People

1024 words - 4 pages be life-saving for people with stubborn bacterial infections, but they're not for the faint of heart. So doctors have come up with a way to make them more palatable: the frozen poop pill.People infected with Clostridium difficile suffer debilitating diarrhea, but the bug often defies antibiotics. Doctors have recently discovered that a fecal transplant will restore good gut bacteria that banishes the C. diff. But the procedure is awkward

The Health Threat of Antibiotic Resistance

1011 words - 4 pages harmful bacteria such as clostridium difficile (C-Diff). The four “C” antibiotics that have a high risk for patient to develop C-diff are clindamycin, cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, and ciprofloxacin (Haddox, 2013). These antibiotics have the highest risk of leading to C-diff development, however all antibiotics increase a patient’s likelihood of a C-diff infection. This effect can last up to 12 weeks post antibiotic administration (Haddox, 2013

C diff

705 words - 3 pages In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). C. difficile, more commonly known as C. diff, is a bacterium that causes inflammation of the colon, or colitis. It is a gram positive anaerobic spore forming bacteria that is most commonly seen in cases of hospital associated diarrhea. Symptoms

The Importance of Hand-Washing in a Hospital Environment

1328 words - 5 pages Why is proper hand washing in a hospital setting vital to a patient’s health? Hospitals all across America are cracking down on employees washing their hands before and after leaving a patients room. Patients are coming in for a simple procedure and staying longer due to the fact of catching something while in the hospital. Three of the major infections patients are catching are c-Diff (clostridium Difficile), MRSA (Methicillin resistant

Clinical Practice Have Been Revolutionised by PCR

2399 words - 10 pages PCR primers and probes. It also can be used to screen any sex-linked disorder present prior to implantation.(16) Adamson & co have discussed the effectiveness of real time PCR over traditional immunoassay techniques in their research. The immunoassay techniques involves antigen testing methods of group A streptococcus from throat swabs, Clostridium difficile toxin from faeces. Real time PCR have have shown to have equal of more sensitivity

Gut Bacteria of Breastfed vs Bottle Fed Infants

1241 words - 5 pages . difficile, and C. tertium were most commonly cultured (Benno, Swada, & Mitsuoka, 1984). In general the Clostridium group was not found in breast fed infants, but only in bottle fed infants. The importance of this study is that there is a definite difference between the bacteria composition in the gut of breastfed and bottle fed infants. Like in the previous study, another study found that breast fed infants had a high number of Bifidobacterium

The Disagreements Over the Health Effects of Probiotics

1616 words - 7 pages effect was varied between studies (Allen, 2011). During periods of antibiotic use, many patients have shown to develop antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) from either the disruption of bowel flora, direct effect of the antibiotic or the overgrowth of Gram-positive Clostridium difficile that can produce toxins in the bowel. This can lead to Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) (NICE, 2011). Many patients are now using probiotics to

Botulism or Sausage Poisoning

1878 words - 8 pages for development of infant botulism. 3.4 Intestinal botulism in teens and adults Colonization of C. botulinum type B and rare type A cause the intestinal botulism following intestinal surgery and antibiotic administration which can change the gut’s micro-flora. Normally, intestinal botulism caused from other species of toxigenic clostridium other than C. botulinum such as C. baratii, C. butyricum, C. difficile and C. perfringens. 3.5

The History, Function, and Resistance Associated with Vancomycin, a Glycopeptide Antibiotic

2385 words - 10 pages ). Vancomycin has emerged more recently as a very popular drug of choice due to the emergence of methicillin-resistant bacteria and a pseudomembranous enterocolitis which is caused by bacteria such as Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus (9). Vancomycin has also been found to be useful against other popular pathogens, while at the same time having low absorbance from the intestinal tract, making it a popular drug of choice for many

Similar Essays

Description Of The Clostridium Difficile Bacteria

1518 words - 6 pages Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile) is a bacteria-related gastrointestinal infection that is caused (etiology) by the use of antibiotics therapy or exposure to the C. difficile spores (Swartz, 2013). According to published reports compiled by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), National Safety Network (NHSN), and the Center for Disease Control Prevention (CDC), the rate of CDI have a major financial impact (costs associated with

Fecal Microbial Bacteria Essay

1203 words - 5 pages nasoduodenal tube or enema (van Nood et al. 20013). The donor may be any healthy, medically screened adult, either an unrelated stranger or a family member. After FMT, recipients also showed a more diverse population of bacteria in their own feces (Song et al. 2013). With multiple studies showing that FMT provides an antibiotic-free cure for the majority of Clostridium difficile infections with minimal side effects, I feel that the next step in

Bowel Resection (Colostomy/Ileostomoy) Essay

1553 words - 7 pages infected and necrotic, thus the physician advised the patient to treat the infection via a “colostomy takedown” and diversion to ileostomy. After the procedure was done, the above stated patient contracted Clostridium difficile, a bacterial disease causing symptoms such as diarrhea and life-threating inflammation of the colon. The patient received collaborative patient care consisting of the nursing staff, respiratory therapy, physical therapy

Hand Washing Versus Alcohol Based Sanitizers

1098 words - 4 pages Healthcare acquired infections (HCI) are very common in today’s hospitals and new forms of drug resistant organisms have emerged limitation of the spread of these organisms are of great significance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile(CDIF), surgical site infections, urinary tract infections, and ventilator related pneumonias are common HCI’s. Surgical site