3. LITERATURE STUDY
3.1. Historical context
At the end of the 1950’s and during the 1960’s and 1970’s the idea of corridor development, both planned and unplanned, was actively studied and discussed among spatial planners, designers and scientists (e.g. by C.F.G. Whebell, George R. Collins, C. Doxiadis). Many of these practitioners and scholars also encountered the difficulty of visualising the dynamics of corridors and often referred to (earlier) schemes and designs of linear cities.
A study on both the definition and visualisation of corridors in this time-period may contribute to the discussion on corridor development and urban networks. These designs/concepts/studies show early examples of thinking. They recognise the importance and formative character of mobility and modern infrastructure for urban development; not only regarding accessibility but also new ways of urban concentration instead of sprawl etc.
These studies are based on a combination of city and countryside. Three spatial designers and/or researchers; George R. Collins (art- and architecture historian), C.F.J. Whebell (geographer) and C. Doxiadis (architect/urban designer) who were actively involved in the discussion on corridor development during the 1960’s are studied. Each of them has studied the concept of corridor development, from their different points of view and different disciplines.
3.1.1. George R. Collins (architectural historian)
The contemporary art- and architecture historian George R. Collins wrote a series of articles on linear planning in the late 1950’s and the 1960’s. Collins wrote in response to the rising popularity of the concepts for linear cities in those days. There was actual unplanned linear urban growth and lack of research on these subjects. In his articles Collins that linear growth has been “the natural pattern of growth of our great urban regions” (Collins, Linear Planning)
Collins study suggests the existence of linear settlements in history, due to topographical or ecological circumstances. He describes the actual ‘linear plan’ as “very much a modern idea” (Collins, Linear Planning)related to the transportation revolution and the search for efficiency and possibilities for urban development. Collins has mentioned Arturo Soria Y Mata and his plans for the linear extension of Madrid (the Ciudad Lineal) at the end of the 19th century. Collin feared unplanned and uncontrolled linear growth of cities and the interlacing of their ‘tentacular radii’ (Collins, Linear Planning) but he expected that planners could gain control and guide this development; “The natural settlement patterns testify to the presence of tremendous forces that could presumably be harnessed into rational lines of growth in the interests of a more wholesome environment.” (Collins, Linear Planning). This combination of rejection of the unplanned corridor development and expectations of planned corridor development shows a parallel with the Dutch short-lived positive...