Penguins Essay

859 words - 3 pages

Lincoln College Prep AcademyPenguinsIntro:Penguins are a group of flightless birds who primarily live in the southern hemisphere. Their tuxedo-like appearance is called counter-shading. Not only is this a trait it is a form of camouflage that keeps them safe underwater. Penguins reproduce sexually. The ways they do it though is what caught my eye. Penguins have three types of courtships: Ecstatic, Mutual, and Bowing.Ecstatic, also called trumpeting, involves head swinging or advertisement, this establishes possession of a nest site, and it attracts females, it also warns other males to stay away. In Mutual when paired, male and female penguins perform the mutual display together. This display seems to strengthen the bond. Bowing displays lessens the chance of aggression and strengthen respect between partners.The penguin diet can be made up of fish, krill, squid and other forms of sea-life. Penguins can spend up to 75% of their lives in the water. They do all of their hunting in the water. Their prey can be found not far from the surface. They catch prey in their beaks and swallow them whole and swim at the same time!Penguins for the most part breed in large colonies. Living in colonies results in a high level of social interaction between birds, which has led to a large "vocabulary" of visual as well as vocal displays in all penguin species. Penguins are always in big groups which lead to lots of social interactions sometimes good and bad. In some cases when mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to steal another mother's chick; usually they are unsuccessfully as other females in the area help the victim mother in keeping her chick.Literature Review:Penguins interact with other species rarely. They don't because their habitat (The Arctic) has few animals and the ones they do have are mostly predators. They live on pack ice and in the oceans around Antarctica. They breed on the land or ice surfaces along the coast and on islands.Global Warming plays one of the biggest roles on the population loss in arctic animals. Global warming is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere. "Penguin populations all over the world are being affected by things like global warming and by food reduction in areas where they breed," (Anitei, S, 2006 Humans - A Threat to Penguin Life.) The heat melts the ice and they have nowhere to lay eggs and raise babies. This also reduces the amount of krill available as the main food source for the Emperor Penguin. There is a large amount of greenhouse gas in the air, which is causing a hole to form in the ozone layer. Resulting in, harmful...

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