Over the past few decades, American society has become more and more obsessed on performance outcomes and winning; being declared the best has become most important (Crain, 2004). Winning is often viewed as an all or nothing virtue, whereby greatness is a descriptive term reserved only for those whose names appear at the top of the list (Hanchon, 2011). This evolving mindset communicates to our youth that despite his or her efforts, only the final results matter. For many individuals the ideas of achievement, excellence, and self-worth have become highly dependent upon the perceived outcomes of the competitions or events in which they engage (Hanchon, 2011). Outperforming one’s competitors serves as the defining characteristic of success or excellence, which in turn, appears to serve as a key determinant in the individual’s self-assessment of life satisfaction (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998).
Sport performance is mediated by positive and negative variables; the pressure to perform for a result leads to the negative variable of higher expectations on the athlete. Stress and the pressure to perform are both contributing factors to higher anxiety levels, overtraining, and burnout in athletes (Weinberg & Gould, 2007). In some cases, “higher expectations also appear to increase the amount of stress an athlete may experience, and higher levels of stress are generally related to higher levels of state anxiety and burnout” (Jones & Hanton, 1996; Raedeke & Smith, 2001).
Fear of failures, frustration, high expectations, anxiety, and other pressures to perform are all stresses identified as being related to burnout (Dale & Weinberg, 1990). Burnout has been addressed in the Old Testament (Exodus 18:17-18), in which pastors speak of the “weariness of Elijah” (Kaschka, Korczak, & Broich, 2011). Burnout as an observable fact has probably existed at all times and in all cultures. Burnout, for the purpose of this study, is defined as a psychological syndrome comprising of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced athletic accomplishment, and sport devaluation ( Raedeke & Smith, 2001). This symptom-based definition provides a means by which the potential causes and consequences of burnout, such as illness, injury, and dropout can be examined (Cresswell & Eklund, 2003).
The first symptom, exhaustion, is characterized by being extremely weak or tired; the perceived depletion of physical and emotional resources associated with practice or competition in sport. Extreme exhaustion and lack of energy is the most central aspect of athletic accomplishment (Cresswell & Eklund, 2006; Goodger, Wolfenden, & Lavallee, 2007). The second symptom, reduced accomplishment, is characterized by an enduring sense of reduced personal accomplishment in terms of sport abilities and achievement (Hill, Hall, & Appleton, 2009). This diminishing sense of accomplishment occurs when an athlete becomes discouraged at the failure to accomplish goals. Devaluation,...