Petra which is called the “Rose-Red city” is one of the most famous UNESCO world heritage site. Perta is known as the rose-red city because the city is half built and half carved into rock and the colours of the sandstone cliffs change constantly. The colours vary such as dusky pink, yellow, green, orange, red and dark brown depending on the time of the day and light. Petra is located between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea in Jordan and the city is surrounded by mountains curved with passages and gorges.
Petra was the capital city of the ancient Nabateans and it was an important city for trade. Petra is famous for its trade and hydraulic engineering system and the city of Petra is considered as one of the world’s richest and largest archeological sites. The entrance into the city of Petra is through the Siq, one kilometre long fissure which is surrounded with rose coloured high cliffs. There are over 800 rock-cut monuments in the city including temples, tombs, buildings, funeral halls, baths and arched gateways. The quality of the curved buildings reflect the creativity and industry of the Nabateans.
Petra was the capital city of the Nabateans around the 6th century and ruled by the Nabateans until 100 AD. Under the rule of the Nabateans, Petra flourished as the center for silk and spice trade. In 106 CE, Petra was occupied into a Roman province known as Arabia Petrea and named Hadriane Petra. Petra flourished for another 100 years under the reign of the Roman Empire. However in 363 AD, an earthquake cut out the water works and destroyed half the city of Petra.
A more devastating earthquake occurred in 551 CE and ruined the city of Petra. In the 12th century BC, the Crusaders occupied Petra and built a citadel there. When the Crusaders were gone, Petra was forgotten for almost 300 years. Petra was finally rediscovered in 1812 by a Swiss explorer called Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.
The most famous places in Petra are El Khazneh, Al Deir and the Roman theatre. El Khazneh means treasury in Arabic and it was built between 100 BC and 200 BC. It was named treasury as it was believed as a place where the...