Personalized medicine through the development of modern methods of molecular biology offers application of a suitable drug to the appropriate patient at the right time. The vision of personalized medicine has begun in 1990’s when the molecular research and knowledge about proteomic, genomics and genetic testing escalated. Since then pharmaceutical com-panies, scientists and regulators needed to meet the challenges that the vision was bringing with. Right now “The era of personalised medicine is already upon us” In this paper I am going to discuss this new way of dealing with diseases including several issues which are im-plemented in this section of medicine, these are as follow:
• Individual variation and their implication in personalised medicine
• What is pharmacogenetics/pharmcacogenomic
• The goals and advantages of a personal medicine approach
• Proteomic and genomics – Bio-analytical techniques employed in phar-macogenomics research.
The traditional paradigm based on the physiology of the disease that is the search for a drug on the basis of visible symptoms is slowly displaced by a new approach. The goal of this new approach is to study the molecular mechanisms of disease and to identify the genes respon-sible for its creation. This molecular analysis of the disease make possible to develop precise drug acting on a specific target in addition a pharmacogenetic tests using before pharma-cotherapy will predict how a patient will respond to treatment. Such approach called P4 predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory revolutionizes the way in which medi-cine is practiced and affects the process of new drugs development (S. Jakka and M. Rossbach, 2013). So in modern medical practice disease diagnosis is supported by perform-ing genomic and proteomic tests. On these tests outcome and pharmacogenetic therapeutic decision are made. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics are used interchangeably in literature but they have their own context in the personalised medicine. Pharmacogenomics refers to the general study of the individual genome variations as single nucleotide poly-morphism (SNP), alterations in gene expression or gene inactivation that determine thera-peutic drug behaviour. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of the individual genes varia-tions responsible for drug metabolism and response. Gene sequences that encode for cell receptors, metabolizing enzymes, transporters proteins and other proteins associated with drug absorption and disposition (Kewal K. Jain, 2009 and Ralph K. et al 2004)
Each disease even physiological the same disease is heterogeneous, beginning from their causes, the dynamic of their course and response to the pharmaceutical treatment. Same generic drug used against the same disease will result in various outcomes in many patients. The drug can be beneficial, toxic, allergic, or can result in no response at all. The interaction of the drug with the target molecule can be affected by ours genetic...