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The Five Factor Model And Personality Traits

1928 words - 8 pages

INTRODUCTION
Taking personality into account when hiring an individual into a role or building your team is just as important as considering their previous experience. Skills can be learned throughout a career but personality traits are embedded and harder to change. When an individual is able to match their personality with their employment it is bound to create long-term career success as well as overall job satisfaction and high performance. Ones, Viswesvaran and Dilchert (2005) define personality traits as “enduring dispositions and tendencies of individuals to behave in certain way”, they also indicate that the traits refer to a spectrum of individual attributes, which distinguish people from one another. Personality measures are widely used, which reflects the view that personality plays a significant role in the explanation and prediction of behavior (Tett, Jackson & Rothestein, 1991). Personality variables in work settings received little scientific attention during the 1960’s and the 1970’s (Kuncel, Ones & Sackett, 2010). Even though in today’s research there is a lot of speculation whether personality plays a critical role in job performance and overall career success, however personality variables predict important behaviors and outcomes in industrial, work and organizational psychology (Ones, Viswesvaran & Dilchert, 2005). Personality is a vital aspect to be considered in organizations, especially when looking at individual job performance and career success. The Five-Factor Model approach demonstrates this significance.
FIVE-FACTOR MODEL
The dimensions of personality that are outlined by the Five-Factor Model (FFM) are extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen & Barrick, 1999). Hurtz and Donovan (2000) note that organizations and employers should not disregard general cognitive ability in favor of the FFM dimensions.
Extraversion represents the tendency to be sociable and assertive (Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2007) and thus extroverts tend to be more outgoing, ambitious, dominant and adventurous (Judge et al., 1999). Watson and Clark (1997) state that extroverts are more likely to take on leadership roles (as cited in Judge et al., 1999). Extraversion appears to influence sales and managerial jobs (Hurtz & Donovan, 2000). Extraversion was also found to predict an increase in income over a 10-year period among participants who are under 40 years old (Sutin et al., 2009).
Neuroticism refers to a lack of positive psychological adjustment and emotional stability (Judge et al., 1999). Individuals who score high on neuroticism are more likely to experience a variety of problems, including negative moods, such as, anxiety, fear, depression and irritability; along with physical symptoms (Judge et al., 1999). Seibert and Kraimer (2001) found that individuals who are high on neuroticism assess their careers more negatively; this may be due to a general predisposition...

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