Emotion is unique among the senses mostly because it is related to cognition which provides individuals the capacity to receive signals from within or outside their bodies. Though, the whole process of signalling is founded on a much more complex theory than sending and receiving messages, but on comparing. An indicator involves a combination of what we see and what we expect to see, of how we act and what we actually experience by performing a task (Hochschild, 2012). Stress follows an analogous process, occurring when the perceived pressure exceeds the individual’s capabilities, resources and needs (Palmer, Cooper & Thomas, 2004). Therefore, work-related stress occurs when there is an incompatibility between the demands of the job and the resources and abilities of the individual to meet those demands.
According to Professor Cary L. Cooper there are a large number of possible sources of stress at work, such as factors intrinsic to a particular job, role in organisation, career development, relationships at work and the organisational structure and climate (Cooper and Marshall) . A general source of stress, a thread laced through the whole work experience, it is the task of managing an inconsistency between self and feeling and between self and displaying as an intrinsic aspect of the company (Hochschild, 2012). The following section will discuss the first cause of stress by emphasizing two types of emotional labour, surface-acting and deep-acting and their impact on individuals’ lives.
The concept of emotional labour was first proposed by Arlie Hochschild following her earlier use of ‘emotion work’ and opened radical new possibilities for the sociological study of emotion (Sieben and Wettergren, 2010). Surface acting involves employees simulating emotions that are not actually felt, by changing their outward appearances (nonverbal and paraverbal communication) when displaying required emotions. Unlike surface acting, deep acting involves changing inward feelings by changing something more than outward appearance. In surface acting, feelings are changed from the “outside in” whereas in deep acting feelings are changed from the “inside out”, so the employees’ behaviour has become authentic rather than a superficial performance (King and Lawley, 2013).
In terms of their effects on the individual, surface acting is more detrimental than deep acting. Both emotions pretended and emotions dissembled showed positive correlations with dimension of burnout, however there has been a difference between them. People who fake emotions in order to conform to the task have the tendency to presume they are not doing enough which it is a consequence of burnout. Feeling of not being satisfactory generates a will to give more even by faking. At the same time, repressing the emotions increases both the level of exhaustion and the rate of depersonalization. Hochschild (2012) mentions Delta Airlines and its crew as an example in this case. In the flight attendant’s...