Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to view oceanic exploration as a valuable undertaking.
I. Opening Statement: Forget about exploring outer space, we should concentrate on something a lot closer that we only know a small fraction about - Earth’s oceans.
II. Central Idea: To show the benefits of Government funded exploration and examination of the oceanic environments across the globe.
III. Credibility Statement: I have gathered information from various online sources and periodicals to illustrate the importance of our undersea environment.
IV. Review: The opportunity and endeavor of exploring the Earth’s oceans can reap great rewards for mankind and unravel many of the mysteries that the Earth has left to discover.
[Transition: Let’s start by examining the cost benefits of exploring the ocean instead of outer space]
I. Oceanic exploration costs a lot less than exploring outer space.
A. You get more bang for the buck!
1. NASA.gov reports the average cost of a space mission is around $450 million.
2. According to Space.com the Federal Government approved a budget of $16.6 billion for NASA in 2014. Approximately 1/3 of that will be spent on space exploration.
3. The US Government Accountability Office and its website GAO.gov shows that NASA also gets funding from the Department of Defense (DOD), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA), and US Geologic Survey (USGS) totaling another $19 billion.
4. Figures from 2009 on NOAA.gov show that oceanic exploration receives roughly $4 million in federal funding for the National Undersea Research Program (NURP) through NOAA and has no independent agency tasked with a mission of marine exploration.
5. Wikipedia reports the most sophisticated Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) used in undersea exploration is the Tiburon, which cost $6 million to create and $1 million dollar mission cost.
6. The current president’s administration has proposed eliminating NURP, which has been in existence for 32 years.
[Transition: Innovation is usually spurred on by exploration.]
II. What are some of the spin-offs from each type of exploration?
A. NASA has given us many spin-off technologies.
1. Small LED chips developed to grow plants in outer space are now used in pain treatment and wound care, and space technology has been used to make cars more fuel efficient and more aerodynamic, and the docking technology for the space station and shuttle missions is now used in LASIK surgery.
B. The limited amount of undersea exploration has given us many incredible discoveries as well.
1. Many new pharmaceutical advancements have come from the ocean.
2. Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial compounds have been developed from marine ascidians, sponges, and algae.
3. Anti-cancer drugs and new antibiotics have been produced from Salinospera, which are small microbes over 100 million years old found only in deep ocean sediment. Now understand that only 10% of the ocean floor has...