Peru Independence Essay

948 words - 4 pages

After the Spaniards arrived Peru; all they had focused on was the riches found in Peru. Thus, to protect themselves and their riches a war assembled on the Christians by Atahualpa troops failed, Atahualpa was captured and later executed; the Spaniards had successfully obtained the riches from Peru thus Peru had been colonized in 1533.
Peru had achieved independence from Spain through the influence of held beliefs and concepts from foreign regions, as well as minor political events, and lastly with the guidance of revolutionary leaders, Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar. In 1780, Peruvians came to hold a strong belief in the concept of liberalism as the enlightenment made its way around ...view middle of the document...

Thus, in 1820 San Martin had launched an invasion in Peru with the help of his 4,500 soldiers he had recruited to exterminate Spanish power. However, his attempt was a failure since Spanish viceroy Joaquin de la Pezuela was in command of a much larger army in Lima. As the Spanish government came to hear of this invasion they granted few civil rights to Spanish inhabitants living in the colonies in 1820. Therefore, this weakened the “patriot argument for independence”, which is exactly what the Spanish government hoped for. In the following year on July 28, 1821 San Martin had declared Peruvian independence. However, his support was weakened as though many creole leaders were “slow to step forward and take responsibility”. Therefore, Martin had petitioned for help from the liberator Simon Bolivar. Bolivar offered to send a few troops, through which San Martin realized “that Peru was not big enough for both liberators and sensing the waning of his political influence, as yet another outsider ruling the country, decided to step down as a protector.” In September 1822, Martin resigned and headed back to Europe. However, before Martin left he had a new inaugurated congress who had drawn up the first republican constitution in 1823, making Jose de la Riva Aguero the nation's first president.
Aguero had launched new military campaigns against the viceregal army in the highlands which resulted in their defeat, causing the viceregal army to regain control of Lima and Callao. Thus, the congress deposed Aguero and declared Torre Tagle as president. Despite this, the congress also decided to seek the help of Bolivar once again. However, Aguero refused to step down from power and moved his government to Trujillo where he had negotiated with the royalist. This only worsen the conflict as though when “Bolivar landed in Callao on September...

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