Pests are organisms that reduce the quality or yield of a crop or
plant (Biology AS textbook, Indge, Rowland, Baker). Pest control uses
various techniques to eliminate populations of specific pests to
increase productivity of crops. The two most common methods are the
use of Pesticides and Biological Pest Control. This essay will show
how and why Biological Pest Control is favoured over the use of
Biological Pest Control is the use of a specifically chosen organism
to eat, kill, or otherwise harm a particular pest, and often referred
to as 'natural enemies' according to the article Biological Control of
Pest; www.smartgardening.com/Biological_Pest_Control.htm . These
organisms may be predators, parasites, or a disease, which will attack
the harmful insect.
Biological Control is used as a programme usually in conjunction with
Pesticides in PMI, once the effects of Biological Control show the
dosage of pesticides is considerably lowered which works as an
advantage for Biological Control.
Biological Control is specific to the pest and doesn't harm any other
species; insects can go completely unaffected by their use also
preventing economic damage to agricultural crops, which some pesticide
Pests cannot become resistant to the Biological Organism used, whereas
they can become resistant to Chemical Pesticides breeding a new
generation completely unaffected by the Pesticide and so scientists
are compelled to produce more Pesticides to overcome the resistance.
Researching, testing, and the producing of newer Pesticides usually
leads to very high expenditure, at the expense of the consumer.
Biological Pest Control is a very economical method, and cost
Cost effective also in the sense that Biological Control is a
permanent, self-sustaining method of managing Pests, once established,
Biological Control exerts long term control over the target pest
without further input.
There is little chance of placing danger on the environment and the
water quality with Biological control, as Pesticides can leech into
water and soil having profoundly unknown effects upon its surrounding.
However Biological Control does have some draw-backs it take time for
the organism to establish, therefore there's a short time lapse
between introducing the organism and any significant difference in the
numbers of pests, however Pesticides act very quickly.
Biological control requires planning and monitoring and good knowledge
of the biology of both the pest and the enemy.
Biological control sometimes has 100% success rate, which is not
always beneficial as wiping away a whole population of native pests,
may also prove to disturb the Food Web, because the organism will also
then become extinct itself according to Biological Review Volume 13 No