Phases Of Matter And Vapor Pressure.

1093 words - 4 pages

How do we describe phase changes?What are the phases of matter?The four phases of matter include:oSolidsoLiquidsoGasesoPlasmasA phase change involves a change in the physical state of a substance from one phase to another such as: or vice versaoSolid- liquidoLiquid- gasoSolid - gasSolidsThe physical state of matter characterized by particles that appear to vibrate about fixed points. Particles of a solid (crystalline) are arranged in a compact, three dimensional pattern called a lattice. Because the particles of a solid are held together y strong attractive forces, solids have a definite shape and volumeLiquidsThe physical state of matter characterized by particles that value the ability to slide past each other. This is because the particles of a liquid are not held together as tightly as those of a solid. The particles of a liquid are generally farther apart than they are in solids; therefore, they have more room to move around. The mobility of the particles of a liquid causes liquids to have no definite shape, but a definite volumeGasesThe physical state of matter characterized by particles that are separated by large distances. This allows the molecules of a gas to have the greatest mobility of all the other states of matter (except plasma). Because molecules of a gas are separated by large distances (with little or no attraction towards each other) gas can expand to fill their containers. In other words gases have no definite shape or volume. Any given volume of a gas is mostly empty spaceSolidsoOrderly arrangedoVery little mobility- vibrateoDefinite shape and volumeLiquidsoLess orderly arrangedoMore mobilityoNo definite shapeoDefinite volumeGasesoCompletely disorganizedoGreatest mobilityoNo definite shape or volumeAny substance can (in theory) exist in all three phases. For example water can exist as a solid, liquid, and a gasThe density of a substance generally decreases in going from a solid- liquid- gasNotable exception: water, its solid phases is actually less dense than its liquid phaseWhy do liquids boil?oWhen heat is applied to a solid (or liquid) its temperature and vapor pressure increase with increasing temperature.oPressure is defined as force exerted per unit areaoPressure = force/Area possible units pounds/ inch (tires)ommHg or torr, Kilopascals (kPa), Atmospheres (atm)oMolecules of a gas exert a force/ area pressure on the sides of the balloon. Molecules in the air also exert pressure- atmospheric pressureo(Mercury) barometers can measure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a function of how high it pushes a column of mercury up the tube.oNormal atm. Is defined as 766 mmHg or 760 torr or 101.3 kPa or 14.7 psioAtmospheric pressure varies from day to day according to weather conditions. Atm. Pressure varies with altitude.What is meant by vapor pressure?oVapor pressure refers to the pressure exerted by exiting solid or liquid molecules. Solids have a very small vapor pressure.oLiquids generally have a larger vapor pressure...

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