Phenomenology used in Qualitative Research
Many phenomenological methodologies have been developed and used by qualitative researchers to review individuals’ experiences. Phenomenology for organizational research, descriptive phenomenological method, hermeneutic phenomenology, interpretive phenomenology, and interpretative phenomenological analysis are the five popular phenomenological methodologies in qualitative inquiry.
Phenomenology for organizational research. Phenomenology for organizational research was presented by Patricia Sanders in 1982. It is one of the most popular phenomenological approaches to organize quality research. Sanders (1982) pointed out that phenomenology for ...view middle of the document...
Hermeneutic phenomenology is a popular choice for researchers to organize their studies. For instance, Creswell (1994) used hermeneutic phenomenology to explore" the essence of women faculty’s experience of being mentored" (p. 27). Nine participants were invited in the survey with a form of conversational interviewing. After the interview, Creswell organized the material to answer the purpose of this research.
Interpretive phenomenology. Interpretive phenomenology was first presented by Patricia Benner in 1985. It is a research method that observes the public through the understanding and knowledge of individuals (Benner, 1985). The aim of this phenomenological methodology is to explore nursing and patients' experience (Benner, 1985). Different from descriptive phenomenological method, interpretive phenomenology was ‘‘congruent with a particular theoretical stance (Heideggerian phenomenology) taken toward human beings and human experience’’ (Benner, 1985, p. 5).
Interpretive phenomenology was used in Yakhlef and Esse´n’s (2012) research to examine the caring practices in Switzerland. Observations and open-ended interviews were used to collect the data in two Swedish community care organizations.
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was proposed by Jonathan Smith in 1996. The aim of this research method is to explore how individuals understand the social world (Smith & Osborn, 2003).
Since it was presented as a quality research method, interpretative phenomenological analysis has become very popular. For example, Davidson (2000) used interpretative phenomenological analysis in his research that explored public health nutrition and dietetic to organize and collect data.
Uses and Gratifications Theory. Uses and Gratifications is a theoretical framework that is used to study...