Phenylthiocarbamide Taster Status Essay

2034 words - 8 pages

Correlation between phenylthiocarbamide taster status and quinine sensitivity

Each person has unique preferences for certain tastes and types of food. Some of these preferences are due to environmental factors, while others have genetic components (Yeomans 2010). One such genetically influenced trait is the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). PTC was discovered by accident in 1931 by colleagues Arthur Fox and C. R. Noller. While working in the laboratory, dust from the PTC bottle flew around and Noller complained of the bitter taste while Fox noticed nothing. The two then tried the crystals and observed a distinct difference in their ability to taste PTC. Fox proceeded to investigate this phenomenon and determined that he found both tasters and non-tasters within varied groups of individuals (Fox 1932). PTC has since been a topic of wide interest within fields as diverse as genetics, psychophysiology, ecology, evolution, nutrition, and science education (Wooding 2006). Due to the fact that the phenotype is nearly impossible to guess until explicitly tested, yet once tested quite striking, it has often been used to spice up educational lessons (Wooding 2006).
Aside from the pedagogical implications of such a striking phenotype, many pioneering studies relating to PTC and the taster/non-taster phenotype have been conducted since its discovery (Wooding 2006). Directly after Fox presented his findings for the National Academy of Sciences, Blakeslee also presented his large-scale study of PTC inheritance within families and saw a similar phenomenon of taster and non-taster phenotypes. Furthermore, Blakeslee classified the tasters according to their taste acuity using dilutions at which the bitter taste was first detected (Blakeslee 1932). Although another researcher had determined that the non-taster status was conferred by a recessive allele at a single locus due to the apparent offspring ratios resulting from specific parental crosses (Synder 1931), Blakeslee agreed but also concluded that the relationship was not that simple once the detection threshold and strength of the sensory reaction was considered (Blakeslee 1932).
Since the initial investigations regarding the inheritance of the PTC gene, much more research has been done over the ensuing 81 years including the identification of the gene responsible for PTC sensitivity (Kim 2003). This study identified a region on chromosome 7q that contained a number of TAS2R bitter taste receptor genes (Kim 2003). Within this region, three coding SNPs give rise to five haplotypes that were identified with the most common being the non-taster AVI haplotype and the taster PAV haplotype, which account for approximately 98% of the haplotypes (Kim 2003). Similar to previous studies (Blakeslee 1932, Chang 2006), Kim et al. accounted for the variation in sensitivity to PTC and were able to find a genetic correlation; PAV homozygotes had the highest mean PTC scores,...

Find Another Essay On Phenylthiocarbamide Taster Status

charant Creon as the Main Character of Antigone

1231 words - 5 pages Creon as the Main Character of Antigone   Throughout the Greek play Antigone by Sophocles, there exists a dispute as to who should receive the designation of main character. Antigone, the daughter of the cursed King Oedipus, as well as Creon, stately king of Thebes, both appear as the key figures in this historic play. I believe that Creon, king of Thebes, should be considered the main character in this work of Greek theater. Three

Free Macbeth Essays: Sleep and Sleeplessness

525 words - 2 pages The Sleep and Sleeplessness Motif in Macbeth We have consciences that function to tell us the difference between right and wrong. If we have clear consciences, we usually possess the ability to sleep. But when our consciences are full of guilt, we experience a state of sleeplessness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the sleep and sleeplessness motif to represent Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's consciences and the effect Macbeth's conscience has on

Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield

898 words - 4 pages to being seen as behaving "like a stereotypical and feminine agoraphobic" (26). By the feminizing the subject, Wakefield, through his characteristic vanity, Hawthorne has indirectly given the audience reason to see another sort of reversal of roles in the characters of Mr. and Mrs. Wakefield. The evidence of this is the thesis that Wakefield’s status lies in his recognition by others. Once he is not recognized, he is belittled and not only sees

Essay on Identity in Song of Solomon

2172 words - 9 pages Searching for Identity in Song of Solomon         Abstract: Whether Africans really fly or just escape a monumental burden, perhaps only through death, is a decision Toni Morrison has apparently left to her readers. Never the less, no matter what you believe, within Song of Solomon, the suggestion is, that in order to "fly" you must go back to the beginning, back to your roots. You must learn the "art" from the old messages.   O

The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine

904 words - 4 pages The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine    The stories of Oedipus, as told through Seneca's Oedipus and Cocteau's The Infernal Machine, contain both similarites and differences. Both authors portray the character of Oedipus as being obstinate, ignorant, and inquisitive. Yet Seneca and Cocteau differ on their interpretation of the motives that propelled these characteristics of Oedipus. Seneca portrays Oedipus as a

Okonkwo's Tragic Flaws in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart

3121 words - 12 pages loses his political status and is not allowed to serve on the council even when he returns from exile. Likewise, he has shown disfavor in the eyes of the gods and is removed from being a member of the egwugwu. Economically, Okonkwo has lost his farm, his crops, his houses, and his property when the men of tribe burned everything, "cleansing the land which Okonkwo had polluted with the blood of a clansman" (125). These events of Okonkwo's exile

Sophocles' Antigone - Antigone Must Challenge Creon

889 words - 4 pages Antigone Must Challenge Creon in Antigone   In his "Funeral Oration" Pericles, Athens's leader in their war with other city-states, rallies the patriotism of his people by reminding them of the things they value. He encourages a sense of duty to Athens even to the point of self-sacrifice. He glorifies the free and democratic Athenian way of life and extravagantly praises those willing to die for it. In Antigone, Creon, Thebes's leader in

The Role of Women in Homer’s Iliad

796 words - 3 pages The Role of Women in Homer’s Iliad Homer’s Iliad is undoubtedly focused on its male characters: Achilles, primarily, but also Hector and Agamemnon. Nevertheless, it seems that the most crucial characters in the epic are female. Homer uses the characters of Thetis, Andromache, and Helen as a basis for comparison to the male characters. Homer wants his audience to see and understand the folly of his male characters in choosing war over peace

A Comparison of Butler's Life and Kindred

1915 words - 8 pages A Comparison of Butler's Life and Kindred   What lies in the mind of an author as he or she begins the long task of writing a fiction novel? This question can be answered if the author's life is studied and then compared to the work itself. Octavia E. Butler's life and her novel Kindred have remarkable comparisons. This essay will point out important events of Butler's life and how they link to the mentioned novel. Octavia Estelle

Pillars of Metaphorical Ambiguity in The Scarlet Letter

1439 words - 6 pages Pillars of Metaphorical Ambiguity in The Scarlet Letter Among the multiplicity of arcane elements hidden beneath the words in Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter", none is so apparent, yet strikingly subtle to the reader's perception and consumption of characterization than the allegorical play on words within the names of the characters.  Both the protagonist and her rival within the plot are blessed with conveniently appropriate, fitting

An Analysis of Robert Ji-Song Ku's Leda

2003 words - 8 pages An Analysis of Robert Ji-Song Ku's Leda       In Robert Ji-Song Ku's short story "Leda," the main character, Sorin, leads a life of imitation. He applies himself to his graduate studies in comparative literature a little too readily: he compares not just text to text; he also compares his life to text, to "works of literature" (Wong 281). If his life does not match that of at least one literary character on several levels of interpretation

Similar Essays

Reality And Illusion In Shakespeare's Hamlet Reality, Appearance And Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub Plots In Hamlet Essay

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and

Hamlet As Victim And Hero Essay

1301 words - 5 pages Hamlet as Victim and Hero      Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Shakespearean tragedy, tells the story of Prince Hamlet, who gained the knowledge of a terrible incident that his kingdom had suffered. Claudius, the king of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle, had killed his own brother, the king, who was also the father of Hamlet, and married his brother's widow. Hamlet suffered these traumas to a severe degree, and his only relief was to defeat his

Essay On Light And Dark In Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos