This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Pheromones Essay

979 words - 4 pages

Pheromones were first introduced by Karlson and Luscher, as chemical messengers secreted from bodies into a surrounding environment (Grammer et al, 2004). This allows for the ability to trigger responses of members of the matching species either physiologically or behavioral (Grammer et al, 2004). Pheromones have been known to have many particular purposes that include acting as: opposite sex attractants, attractants for mother and infant bonding, repelling the same-sex, and regulation of the menstrual cycle (Grammer et al, 2004). Found in the axillary organs as well as the pubic region are the apocrine glands understood as the human pheromone manufacturers (Grammer et al, 2004). Pheromones generate sexual behavior changes as the hypothalamus becomes provoked that causes secretion of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), which later causes the release of Luteinizing-releasing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary gland (Grammer et al, 2004).

New research has looked towards the Vomeronasal organ (VNO), a region in the olfactory system whose main role is detecting pheromones (Grammer et al, 2004). Recent studies have stated that based on research in mammals that olfaction may lead to an even greater purpose in sexual reproduction for the selection of a mate (Bhutta, 2007). Uncertainty is then raised as the VNO is considered nonfunctioning in some primates and the accessory olfaction bulb is non-apparent in humans (Grammer et al, 2004). However, current studies have demonstrated that humans have an operative VNO that acts specifically in a sex related approach (Grammer et al, 2004). In one study done by Monti-Bloch and Grosser (1991), they observed at whether the human VNO was capable to respond to chemosensory signals. The study included forty-nine volunteers ranging in age from eighteen to fifty-five years of age that incorporated both men and women using electrodes (Monti-Bloch L. and Grosser B.I., 1991). Human recognized pheromones and a diluent (diluting agent) were administered to the Vomeronasal organ of participants (Monti-Bloch L. and Grosser B.I., 1991). A Teflon Catheter assisted in producing pulses of air that altered concentrations of a pheromone positioned at the nasal septum (Monti-Bloch L. and Grosser B.I., 1991). The results of the study indicated that the stronger the air pulse and concentration of the pheromone lead to a superior response from the VNO for sexual behavior (Monti-Bloch L. and Grosser B.I., 1991). Thus, the study illustrates that when the Vomeronasal organ is aroused by pheromones, it proposes that specific receptor sites do in fact exist and may imply sexual behavior (Monti-Bloch L. and Grosser B.I., 1991). There has been a pheromone receptor gene recognized in the mucosa of the human olfactory that provides deeper verification that the VNO does function and could play a larger role in pheromone recognition (Grammer et al, 2004). Another reason for modern research...

Find Another Essay On pheromones

Love in the Brain Essay

1418 words - 6 pages not this is enough to say that in the case of love, brain does equal behavior. The first stage of romantic love begins with attraction. Whether you have been best friends for a long time or you just met the person, you begin your romantic relationship when there is that feeling of attraction. But why are we attracted to some people and not to others? Some research and experimentation suggests that pheromones play a role in attraction ((1

The Presence of the Human Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) and Its Function

2476 words - 10 pages VNOs to come into contact with chemosensory cues such as pheromones released by other individuals. In mammals, the VNO contains chemosensory receptor cells that bind to pheromones. The binding of pheromones to receptor cells in the VNO provides information about the physiological status of the emitter and facilitates and regulates interactions and behaviors such as sexual behaviors [2]. Rodents have highly developed VNOs but this

Sixth Sense: The Vomeronasal Organ

2326 words - 9 pages structures in the brain. The function of the vomeronasal system is the detection of pheromones, chemical messengers that carry information between individuals of the same species. It was widely believed (as I found in some of the older texts I examined) that humans had long ago discarded this sensory system somewhere along evolution's trail. But convincing behavioral and anatomical evidence has since brought the notion of a human vomeronasal organ (VNO

Sex Chromosomes

1746 words - 7 pages al. 2011). The two main fungal phyla have different mating type genes and organization: a single locus controls mating type in ascomycetes against two loci in basidiomycetes (i.e. haploid cells should carry different alleles at both loci for successful mating). One of the two loci controlling mating types in basidiomycetes encodes pheromones and pheromone receptors involved in syngamy while the other locus encodes two homeodomain proteins (HD1

Beauty, Biology, and Society

1524 words - 6 pages times unconscious. The Golden Ratio, also known as the Phi Ratio, defines human facial structure as following a symmetrical ratio of 1:1.618. (1) Another factor involved in attractiveness is scent and more specifically pheromones. (4) While the intake of human scent may be unconscious is seems to have a positive impact on beauty as well. Pheromones are unconscious indicators that the human body releases. In a study conducted by Anja Rikowski and

Sex, drugs and organic chemistry

1636 words - 7 pages benzene, the reproductive organs were damaged and in some cases caused infertility. Benzene exposure affects the same organs in all people that have been exposed. The seriousness of this effect however differs from person to person as for the health and exposure lengths of the individual. Benzene in sex: Pheromones are odourless chemicals detected by a part of the nose. Many believe that they are involved in the process of choosing a suitable partner


649 words - 3 pages , as farming techniques other than pesticides are expensive, and many people are suffering because of this fact. Pesticide use in third world nations is threatening the health of farmers, and thus should be banned in favour of safer alternatives currently only available in developed countries, such as pheromones, and genetically modified plants. It is the responsiblity of first world nations to provide third world countries with these safer

Can men and women be "just friends"

1003 words - 4 pages female alike, have hormones coursing through their veins, swimming on their skin, and emitting from their bodies at all times. One type of hormone in particular, the pheromone, plays a key role in sexual attraction. Pheromones are scentless hormones released into the air and received into another's body through an organ in the nose called the VNO. There are three types of pheromones: the first two, androstenol and androstenone, are made by both

"Spiders": a mini-report for a high school biology class

887 words - 4 pages same species and not by an ensnared insect. If a female is ready to accept a courting male, she may send signals back to him.Locating the right female can be tricky for a male spider. Fortunately, female spiders produce certain chemical substances known as pheromones that aid spider courtship. A female may release these pheromones through the air (like a perfume) or she may deposit them on her silk threads. When a male spider encounters pheromones


983 words - 4 pages , neurotransmitters, peptides, proteins, pheromones, and hormones 1. Photons are “a unit of intensity of light at the retina” 4. An ion is an atom that has net charge, positive or negative 3. Amino acid is defined as an organic molecule that contains an amine group and a carboxyl group, and it is used to build proteins 3. Odorants signal the presence of food, fire, or predators through small molecules that we get from food or the environment 5

ESP - Extra Sensory Perception

2117 words - 8 pages ESP? Nothing is for certain, but we have some clues. Scientists have identified two previously unknown pits, called the vomeronasal organ (or VNO) after their location – in the nose ("nasal"), behind the thin vomer bone which separates the nostrils ("vomero"). (7) The VNO appears to contain nerves that can detect pheromones. Pheromones are chemicals that trigger hormonal changes and instinctive (non-cognitive) behaviors – and we humans used to

Similar Essays

Sex Pheromones Essay

1069 words - 5 pages Pheromones come from chemical factors that are used naturally to trigger a physical response in members of the same species. They are capable of acting outside the body to impact and attract the receiving individual. Even though they all relate to the same base level, sex pheromone has a greater appeal due to the fact that it plays a bigger role in sexual reproduction. In animals, sex pheromones stipulate the connection of the female

Everything About Human Pheromones Essay

831 words - 4 pages Pheromones are naturally occurring chemical secretions that the fertile body releases externally, which sends messages to potential mates and generates sexual and reproductive responses. Scientists are still uncertain about whether the pheromones have an influence on the sexual life, relationships and physical attraction among humans and those doubts have led to many researches that follow the development of that type of subconscious

Animal Behavior Essay

584 words - 2 pages Animal behavior can be inherited through genes, or it can be learned through interactions with the environment. Behavior that is influenced by genes is molded by natural selection and other evolutionary forces. As a result, most genetically based behaviors should increase the fitness, or reproductive success, of the individual. Pheromones, that are chemicals used for communication, mimicry, which is an example of coevolution, or the evolution of

Systems Of Communication In Insects (Using At Least Three Examples, Discuss Insect Communication Systems)

1115 words - 4 pages , Podisus maculiventris (Pfannenstiel et al. 1995), showed that vibrations produced by feeding caterpillars led the stinkbug to their location.Pheromone communication between insects is the exchange of information in the form of chemicals. Pheromones in insects are produced and transported to the outside of the body by exocrine glands, usually in very small amounts (Jackson & Morgan 1993). Once released by one insect, a pheromone is detected by