“Just War Theory” and “Pacifism” were written by Brian Orend. Brian Orend is a professor of philosophy at the University of Waterloo in Ontario and also a director of International Studies. His works consists of human rights and just wars. In this writing, he discusses the reasons when the wars are justified and how pacifists view wars.
The founders of just war theory are thought to be Augustine, Cicero and Aristotle. There are six main rules to just wars and the first one is “Just cause”. It is known to be the most important rule and it means that the war should be launched only for the right reason. The acceptable causes are, “self- defense from external attack; the defense of others from such; the protection of innocents from brutal, aggressive regimes; and punishment for a grievous wrongdoing which remains uncorrected.” So the war should not be done if it doesn’t fit to those aspects. Just cause could be also wrong received which resorting it being the resistance of aggression. An aggression refers to the “use of armed force in violation of someone else’s basic rights”. There are two basic rights to this, which are “those of states” and “those of their individual citizens”. Aggression involves the use of armies, air forces etc in violation of those rights. For example, in 1939, Nazi Germany went into Poland and the army forces were used to “invade the territory of the victim, overthrow its government and establish a new regime in its place.”
Based on the moral point of view, only legitimate governments have rights and including those to go to war. And there are three aspects to decide whether it is a legitimate government or not. The first aspect is that the state should be recognized as legitimate by its own citizen and the international community. The second aspect is that the state should be avoiding violating the rights of other legitimate states. The final aspect is that the legitimate states should make every reasonable effort to satisfy the human rights of their own citizens. If the states does not fulfill these aspects would not have any rights to govern or to go to war.
The second rule of the just war is “right intention”. We all know that the war must be launched based on the right reason, but just saying that they have the “right reason” is not enough and the “actual motivation behind the resort to war must also be morally appropriate.” The third rule is “proper authority and...