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Philippines Immigration In Usa After 1990

1440 words - 6 pages

The U.S. colonized the Philippines between 1900 and 1934. This had a significant impact on the mass immigration of the Filipinos. The Filipino immigrants were then made U.S. nationals and granted the opportunity of settling in the U.S. and protected by its law and constitution. The increase in demand for labor in California farmlands and Hawaiian plantation led to a surge of Filipino immigrants seeking these jobs (Abraham 14). They mostly came from the provinces of Cebu and Ilocos. The demand for labor in these farms was attributed to the exit of the Japanese work force from the plantations. The immigrants from Philippines mostly comprised of a subgroup known as Sakadas, who entered Hawaii as U.S. nationals. However, they did not enjoy full citizenship and were the first Filipino immigrants to be subjected to cultural oppression and racial discrimination (Abraham 44). It is observed that the Pinoys had the most gruesome experience of racial discrimination that occurred after the amendment of the immigration policies, oppressive farm management practice and anti-miscegenation laws (Chavez 38).
Various researchers have noted that the Immigration and Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) policy facilitated undocumented immigration (Orrenius and Zavodny 448). Following the enactment of this law, there was a dramatic increase of illegal immigration even after the introduction of various traditions to curb this vice. The SCIRP notes that even though the pull and push factors are attributed to international migration, pull factors are more so as a result of mass immigration. This began in the 1980 due to the growth of the population worldwide (SCRIP 20). According to the GAO report, the level of discrimination rose after introduction of the IRCA 1986. The law advocated for, among other things, the education of employees and a reduction in the documents required for one to be employed.
The IRCA policy had little impact in regulating illegal immigration as undocumented immigrants continued to get employment due to ineffective implementation of this law. This made it difficult for the immigration agency to handle the large number of applicants who sought to join the legalization program. About 3 million undocumented immigrants applied for amnesty out of which 2.7 were legalized under the amnesty program (Martin 17). After enactment of this IRCA act, there were adjustments and modification made on it by Congress with regards to the numerical limit and preference system. This saw Congress table a bill in the house that was later signed by President Bush in 1990 and currently known as the Immigration act of 1990. This Act laid emphasis on increasing the numerical limit of immigrants, revise the preference system, introduce diversity program and give a higher priority to employment based immigration. This law introduced an annual level of 675,000 immigrants per year in 1995 that included 480,000 for family related, 140,000 for employment-based and 55, 000 for...

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