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Phill Kehoe Essay

1750 words - 7 pages

Williams (2012) identified that physical education (P.E.) within primary school, is often where a child first encounters involvement within physical activity. These experiences can become the catalyst for life-long participation, assuming that the experience was positive appose to negative. Coalter (2007) reassuringly believes of a notion that P.E. provides positive opportunities, whereby positive outcome surface, but unfortunately participation alone in physical activity is not the root solution to life-long participation. It is widely believed that P.E. within schools has a unique opportunity to lead individuals toward a more active lifestyle, one of which promotes positive experiences and allows change in attitude (Chapel & Whitehead, 2013). It is however important to understand that positive experiences in P.E. alone, will not stand the course of time unless accompanied with a facilitating environment/ climate. The experiences individuals receive then determine their next intentions to later engagement in P.E. (Zhu & Zajko, 2006).
Epstein (1998) stated “Teachers play an active role in the construction of children's perceptions of the motivational climate and, consequently, the quality of children's motivation”. Therefore Teachers of physical education are responsible for creating a setting that boosts and motivates children to become more active. Simply through understanding motivation as a beneficial tool in teaching, teachers will be able to develop a motivational environment that further enables engagement, in addition develops learning (Seel, 2012). Ntoumanis (2001) recognised that the benefits of motivation and its cognitive and affective processes, children can classify P.E. as an asset, exciting, and a valuable experience or alternatively one of no value. In response to these perceptions motivation in P.E. can be influenced by teacher-initiated motivational climate.
Motivational climate is referred to as a situation-induced environment directing the goals of an action in achievement situation (Ames, 1992; Ames & Archer, 1988; Dweck & Legget, 1988; Nicholls, 1984) (in Liukkonen, 2007, pg4). Motivational climate takes two different approaches task or ego, each are determined by the individual themselves to the given achievement environment (Treasure & Roberts, 2001). Task oriented or task mastery motivated individuals are said to focus on personal development, which in turn influences high levels of competence (Duda, 1989). While Nicholls (1984) noted perceiving one’s personal abilities to what the individual believes they can accomplish, is self-referenced through task orientation. If an individual is deemed ego orientated, they take a narrative focus towards their abilities, therefore to attain success they perceive relatedness to others on a normatively demanding task (Nicholls, 1984).
Research’s Morgan, et al (2005, pg2) has uncovered
“A mastery climate is correlated with adaptive motivational responses such as a desire for...

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