Philosophical Comparison Darwin & Bergson Essay

2053 words - 8 pages

The concept of evolution first came about during the era of the Enlightenment. It was a concept that was radically different, even heretical, in a Judaeo-Christian society. Evolution, the concept of creation without a consciously, intelligent, omni-everything creator, was met with vicious opposition. It is, therefore, not surprising that it took until the middle to late nineteenth century for it to be accepted at least in part as a respectable tenant of the scientific community. Naturalist Charles Darwin was the first to present an argument that was not rejected out of hand. This had more to do with the fact that in 1859 the social climate was now open to new concepts, thanks in part, to such forerunners as French Evolutionist Jean-Baptist de Lamack and the German Naturphilosophs. This is not to say that the social structure, in which Darwin published Origin of the Species, went so far as to enthusiastically embrace evolutionary theories, but it did listen and analyze the concepts rather than committing the vicious atrocities that occurred during the Enlightenment, at least atrocities were not committed because someone choose to following an evolutionary theory rather than Judaeo-Creationism. Forty-seven years later, Origins of the Species had enough of a significant influence that it merited attention and affluent adherents and skeptics. One such person, who was for the most part a skeptic, was Henri Bergson. Born the year Origins of the Species was published, Bergson grew up with Christian theology and Darwinian Evolution being preached to him. He had a mind of his own and was not afraid to use it. Thus, in 1907, Bergson published a new theory that had slight elements of both creationism and Darwinian evolutionism, but his argument was logical, innovative, and quite different from either of the opposing theories. Where Darwin had Natural Selection; Bergson has élan vital, vegetable torpor, intellect, and instinct. In 1837, while returning home from abroad, Darwin began to wonder if the "distribution of the inhabitants of South American [and] the geological relations of the past inhabitants" couldn't "throw some light on the origin of species--that mystery of mysteries." Thus in that very year, he commenced an in-depth study of nature through observation. Five years later, in 1842, he allowed himself "to speculate on the subject and draw up some short notes." Two years after that in 1844, Darwin made his notes "into a sketch of the conclusions...from that period to the present day [in 1859] I have steadily pursed the same object." Darwin's object was to propose Natural Selection as the origin and development of any and all species, thus, rejecting the idea of an intelligent Creator, as well as, any super-natural or spiritual force or power. Natural Selection was an evolutionary theory wherein each species was not created individually as Judaeo-creationism claimed, but instead claimed that each species evolved through...

Find Another Essay On Philosophical Comparison Darwin & Bergson

Creation in Genesis Essay

941 words - 4 pages such a young-earth view (Answers in Genesis). The first chapters of Genesis teach us about God’s perfect creation, man’s rebellious fall, God’s just punishment of death for sin, and God’s gracious promise of the seed, Jesus Christ (Answers in Genesis). Ham states “The creation/evolution debate is really a conflict between two philosophical worldviews based on two different accounts of origins or historical science beliefs. Creation is the only

What Is Anthropology? How Is It Done?

2359 words - 9 pages , physical anthropology, and ethnography to study humanity's beginnings to study these people (Lee 1993:2). He went to the Kalahari Desert to study these people because they were hunting and gathering societies (Lee 1993:2). This is very similar to how we lived 12,000 years ago, so it may teach us something. The fifth story is about Charles Darwin. Darwin attended Cambridge University (Campbell & Loy 1996:11). He was interested in natural

eliot

10027 words - 40 pages complex theoretical foundations of modernist poetics, Rebecca Beasley examines: • the aesthetic modes and theories that formed a context for modernism • the influence of contemporary philosophical movements • the modernist critique of democracy • the importance of the First World War • modernism's programmes for social reform Examining the critical thought and poetry of Eliot, Hulme and Pound, this volume offers

Themes in the Tempest

1333 words - 5 pages , an evil witch and mother of the 'deformed slave' Caliban. Sycorax does not enter the action of the play, having died before it opens, but enough is made of her evil disposition and behaviour to show Prospero as a model of human virtue in comparison. This despite Prospero's own use of magic to accomplish his will, and his bullying of the spirit Ariel and his threats to and punishments of Caliban. Prospero's role is central to the play, he is in

Dualism and the Double in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment

5607 words - 22 pages nihilists include the establishing of a parliamentary government; the programs were on the whole moderate in comparison with the revolutionary measures of 1917. Nihilism was too diffuse and negative to persist as a movement and gradually gave way to other philosophies of revolt; it remained, however, an element in later Russian thought.Although Raskolnikov adopts nihilism as an aspect of his belief system, he later finds himself tormented by his

THE EFFECTS OF THE MOVEMENTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY ON THE AGE OF NATURALISM

1930 words - 8 pages an age under the effect of such scientific developments as the Revolutionary Theory of the English scientist Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud’s works on human consciousness, and the social and economic analyzes of Karl Marx. (Binford, 172) Along with the idea of the importance of the dependence on scientific facts of the events, these scientific developments also brought about the thought that men are, as Zola states, “human beasts” who are

Historical Foundation of Psychology

2095 words - 8 pages , the philosophical battle for the definition of the science becomes extremely apparent. In Titchener's (1898) seminal article he begins by outlining three "mutually interdependent sciences of morphology, physiology, and ontogeny" in the science of living things. That is the function, structure, and process of change in the realm of biology. However, while allowing for a value in descriptive (functional) psychology he posits that it, "cannot, in

Discuss the view that understandings of politics are always based on conceptions of human nature

2072 words - 8 pages Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution, wrote how each species went through a series of random genetic mutations some of which gave them the chance to survive and prosper, and others that became extinct.However it was only until Herbert Spencer wrote his book 'The Man Versus The State' was the term 'survival of the fittest' used to explain human nature. This gives rise to how it is in our nature to compete amongst each other, in order to

The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Nurses Attitudes towards Older Patients

3795 words - 15 pages construct of the ‘right’ attitude has been brought into question by many. Ingham and Fielding question whether there is a single right attitude suggesting that this is dependant on institutions’ aims and the perception of older people as individuals. Institutions are more concerned with smooth running than the needs of individual patients. However this philosophical approach is of little help when addressing the problem and in studies which show

Compare and contrast Marx and Weber

4185 words - 17 pages only come from other ideas they are dependent on the language of society. Hence, ideas can only come from society. Feuerbach viewed history as consisting of an "epoch" of ideas. An "epoch" was a set of ideas that that defined a period in history.The nineteenth century was also the era of Darwin who tried to answer questions using scientific reason. Darwin had also exposed his theory of evolution during this era. Looking at the philosophy of Marx

Extensive Literature Review. A experimental study done by my class group, we've included each step and all the variables of our study. Includes limitations and a full analysis. 2 page works cited

3176 words - 13 pages surveys.The universality of facial expressions is the theory that fits most with our research project. Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that emotions and their expressions are similar throughout the world and that many of these expressions are universal.However, it was not until the mid 1960’s that psychologist Sylvan Tomkins, Paul Ekman, and Carroll Izard conducted the first “universality studies.” These studies showed that

Similar Essays

Henri Bergson, Towards His Philosophy Essay

716 words - 3 pages de France. In 1914 he was elected to the Académie Française; from 1921 to 1926 he was president of the Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. Shortly before his death in 1941, Bergson expressed in several ways his opposition to the Vichy regime. Bergson's English background explains the deep influence that Spencer, Mill, and Darwin had on him during his youth, but his own philosophy is largely a reaction

Analysis On Human Nature

1565 words - 7 pages Human Nature By Erich Dominguez My goal in this paper is to provide an analysis on human nature, from two different philosophical positions, Darwinism and Marxism. First, I will give an explanation of both Charles Darwin and Karl Marx’s individual views on human nature. Secondly, I will provide an objection to these views and explain how a defendant would respond to their positions. Furthermore, these positions will be evaluated to determine

School Violence Essay

2262 words - 9 pages brilliant of the nineteenth century, such as Jean Jaures and Henri Bergson who became important figures in France’s intellectual life. Fustel de Coulanges a perfectionist with a social scientific view, studied with Durkheim in Ecole Normale Superierure. Durkheim’s interested in a scientific approach to society manifested when he read Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. While attending Ecole Normale Superierure he seems to loose interest and

Cultural Revolution Study Notes Essay

2361 words - 9 pages spiraling process would eventually result in a swelling of the working class and a shrinking of the owner class until the system broke down.Section 2: The New Science- Scientific expeditions traveled to all parts of the world during the 1800's. Their purpose was to expand geographical knowledge and to study the plants and animals they found.- From 1831 to 1836, Charles Darwin worked as a naturalist with a British expedition aboard the H.M.S. Beagle