Philosophical Concepts Of Value Essay

2167 words - 9 pages

Introduction
Value has been a fundamental issue in philosophy from the time of Plato, although the common usage of the term "value" in philosophy extends only back to the nineteenth century. Before that time, value were discussed in terms of the good, the right, beauty, virtue, truth, obligation, moral judgement, aesthetic judgement etc. The recognition that all these separate concepts are based on the same underlying structure led to the development of "value theory" through the works of such eminent philosophers as Lotze, Meinong, von Ehrenfels, and later Scheler, Nicolai Hartman, Perry, Dewey and Pepper. The common ground of concepts such as the good, the beautiful, the right is that they deal essentially with what ought to be, rather than with what is. This distinction between value (what ought to be) and fact (what is) pervades all of the social sciences and humanities and is the subject of considerable debate, most recently in the area of policy analysis.
The term value or values is used in a great variety of contexts and has many meanings in everyday language. Value can mean standards, beliefs, principles, moral obligations and social norms, but also desires, wants, needs or interests. Furthermore, value can also mean the worth, importance or significance of a thing or object of interest. This abundance of different meanings is not only found in ordinary speech, it is also evident in the usage of "value" in the social sciences and humanities.
As far as philosophy is concerned the term “value theory” is used in different ways. Firstly, it is used to encompass all the other fields of philosophy, like social, political, feminist and also the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some “evaluative” aspect. Secondly “value theory” is roughly synonymous with “axiology”. Axiology can be thought of as primarily concerned with classifying what things are good, and how good they are. For instance, a traditional question of axiology concerns whether the objects of value are subjective psychological states, or objective states of the world. Thirdly, or in a more useful way, “value theory” designates the area of moral philosophy that is concerned with theoretical questions about value and goodness of all varieties. The theory of value, so construed, encompasses axiology, but also includes many other questions about the nature of value and its relation with other discipline and applications.
The development of concepts and measures of value in philosophy, the social and behavioral sciences and in economics is based on theories of value. In order to scrutinize in detail and provide a foundation for the discussion of value, and to clarify the assumptions underlying different conceptions of value, this section presents a brief discussion of theories of value
A primary distinction can be drawn between normative and meta-normative theories of value:
(a) normative theories of value make judgements about...

Find Another Essay On Philosophical Concepts of Value

The Philosophical Investigations Essay

4603 words - 18 pages Hilmy 1987: 20. (3) The following abbreviations are used after quotations in the text: (PI) Philosophical Investigations, (P) 'Philosophy' in Philosophical Occasions, (BB) The Blue and Brown Books, (WLPP) Wittgenstein's Lectures on Philosophical Psychology 1946-1947, (AWL) Wittgenstein's Lectures Cambridge 1932-1935 and (CV) Culture and Value. (4) For a detailed study of Wittgenstein's method of grammatical investigation and his various

Analytical Philosophy: A Series of Movment

780 words - 4 pages During the 20th century Analytic philosophy has simply been a series of movements that shaped the model of knowledge and learning into modern day processes and concepts. The positive goal in all philosophies is to find the truth of reality and authenticity. The variety of these analytic philosophies has been viewed as the handmaiden of science and uses this view for purposes for learning. Analytic philosophy has also had the rational

Philosophy Should Be Included in a University Student's Coursework

1044 words - 4 pages When a student goes through the state of California’s University system, the student is encouraged to take many different courses of broadly ranged material including courses dealing with philosophy. Some individuals argue that studying and reading philosophy is a waste of a student’s time and has little value to the student and his/her education. Though this argument shows valid concerns for a university student’s education, it is more

Defining Philosophy Paper

832 words - 3 pages philosophical questions. The nature of many philosophical questions concern norms. The application of norms, also known as standards, occurs when people decide whether something is good or bad, right or wrong, beautiful or ugly. Normative questions ask about the value of something. The field of science explains how things are but does not tell us how things ought to be. Sometimes philosophical questions arise when different people believe different

The Relationship Between Art and Philosophical Ethics

1520 words - 6 pages The relationship between art and philosophical ethics can be divided into a dichotomy of two, radical understandings: aestheticism and moralism. Aestheticism prioritizes, if not entirely isolates, the artistic and technical value of an artwork over its moral implications. The aesthetic tradition asserts that art ought to be composed solely “for art’s sake,” hinging this position upon the assumption that only the essential component of an artwork

Metaphors in Philosophy

4135 words - 17 pages value for innovation, as they can anticipate holistic projections which are not yet fulfilled by theoretical analysis. This paper deals with the question, of whether the cognitive content of metaphors can be put to use in philosophy, and, if so, what cognitive or methodological place metaphors have within philosophical discourse. Three philosophical attitudes toward metaphors can be distinguished: First, the various arguments for rejection of

20th Century Philosophy: Ideas of Men that Forever Changed the World

970 words - 4 pages exceeding concepts is Ludwig Wittgenstein who has been considered the most influential philosopher of the 20th century. As described by Bertrand Russell, it was stated that Wittgenstein was merely a genius of ideas customarily conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating in philosophical movements of the 20th century. Wittgenstein’s studies and theories of concluding controversial logical situations range in logic and language, perception

Universal heathcare: the great debate - ccc english 1010 - argumentative essay

943 words - 4 pages human life. Efforts to define morality by reference to any external authority, he argues, inescapably originated in a significant logical dilemma about the origin of the good. Plato's Apology is an account of Socrates's unsuccessful speech in his own defense before the Athenian jury; it includes a detailed description of the motives and goals of philosophical activity as he practiced it, together with a passionate declaration of its value for life

Social Psychoanalysis, Post-structuralism and German philosophical traditions

1859 words - 8 pages Lacan’s theory is a form of structuralism because it expansively talks about the tenets of human culture. As advanced by the structuralism theory, human culture is understood from the idea that, there is a larger relationship between structures of human existence. Lacan posits that human culture stems from its relationship with overarching systems. Lacan’s theory argues that human phenomena do not have value without the relationship that ensues

The Philosophical Teachings of Supernatural

1691 words - 7 pages everything happens for a reason, and that the laws of nature are inescapable. When spending an entire Saturday watching Supernatural, one might miss many of the underlying deep and philosophical concepts laced throughout the plot of each episode. The philosophies of Freud, the Utilitarians, and the Stoics are only a few of the concepts that shadow the plots of the show. If this holds true, then it must be wondered what philosophical concepts can be

The Crisis

971 words - 4 pages to continue with future generations until the final establishment is realized. The concept of reductionism also tries to bring different things, different parts, together to form one whole, unified form. We can trace the origins of modern scientific trends back to Greek primal establishment. From the simplistic Socratic approach of ‘Who am I?’, philosophical self-reflection builds on thoughts and concepts of the likes of Galileo and Socrates

Similar Essays

The Value Of Philosophical Thinking Essay

1353 words - 5 pages The study of Philosophy is often under serious suspicions from society of being somewhat useless. It provides no immediate answers or results, leaves one with uncertainty and unanswerable questions, and also a complicated view of the life in this world. This is to say the value of philosophizing is not obvious and not easily attained. As it has been pointed out, the pursuit of philosophical knowledge does not often bring wealth or concrete

Reflections On Msn A Rational Thought Excercise Covering Philosophical Topics And Concepts Such As; Aesthetics, Globalisation And Philosophy Of Religion

9421 words - 38 pages technologically since the 1980's we would still be playing Pong rip offs. Although, I am playing Javanoid as we speak...CCTV Just Makes Me Scared, They're Watching Us Everywhere says:Hmm I think we have sidetracked from the original investigation and are interweaving the concepts of the 'originality' and the 'attractiveness' of a game into a gargantuan mess. I would say that the furthering of the potential for graphical quality does not necessarily

Compare And Contrast The Implications On The Bid Preparation Of Concepts Of 'best Value' And 'partnering'

2976 words - 12 pages invite some useful and effective management strategy and approach for a project. Under this circumstances, best value and partnering as very effective management strategy and approaches were introduced and widely used in the bid process. In this essay, I will compare and contrast the implications of the concepts of best value and partnering on the bid preparation process.Definitions1. Definition of Best ValueIn response to criticism of competition

Philosophical Concepts In The Work Of Borges: The Books Used In This Essay Are "The Circular Ruins", "Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius", And "The Library Of Babel"

1132 words - 5 pages Philosophical Concepts in the Work of BorgesJorge Luis Borges, born on August 24th, 1899, originally started his career by publishing poems and essays in literary journals. It did not take him long, however, to begin the transition from writing non-fictional essays about magic to short stories that wove tales of alternate realities and paradoxical concepts. "The book which is normally considered to mark this transition is his Historia universal