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Philosophy Essay

2139 words - 9 pages

There are three different parts of elements in one’s soul called: Reason, physical appetites and spirit due to the inner conflict. Each part of the soul is doing its own job. A man can have two different responses from his inner world when he has a conflict to decide. For example, a man was thirsty. He wants to drink some water because his appetite is telling him that he needs to quench. While his reason part will list out all the rational reasons for avoiding him from drinking, such as the water can make you sick. When the man’s desire was higher than reason then the sprite will appear to support with appetite (138). However there is another situation when the spirit will help reason out. “When the soul is divided into factions, it is far more ready to be up in arms on the side of reason” (138). Reason can consider as wisdom because it is the leader of the soul. It gives rational orders for spirit to follow, so they could work together to hold the appetites. Then spirit can symbolize courage because the spirit is not afraid of against enemies in order to carry out its mission for holding the appetites in all circumstances because appetite is like the many-headed of the monster as it mentions in Chapter XXXIV. The many-headed symbolized the divided mind of the monster. It needs the lion to help the man to control the many-headed monster since the power of the man will be weak when there are many desires of the monster. Hence, the man symbolized the reason and the lion symbolized the spirit. Moreover, there shouldn’t be any internal conflict between these three since they are all doing a great job. This phenomenon of performing good cooperation is called temperance. According to Socrates “the reason for all this is that each part of his nature is exercising its proper function, of ruling or being ruled” (141). Thus the last virtue named justice should also apply to these three parts of the soul because justice is the principle of separation to avoid these parts into fractions.
(2) In chapter XIX, what does Socrates say is the difference between knowledge and belief, and how does he use beauty to illustrate the difference?
There are two types of man in the world. One loves beauty because of the beautiful things they saw and felt, without knowing any knowledge what beauty’s actual meaning in the form. While other loves beauty, because they have the knowledge of what beauty is. Then they follow the form to love what it is being considered as beauty (183). Knowledge and belief are two opposite things according to the interpretation of Socrates. “If the reality is the object of knowledge, the object of belief must be something other than the real” (186). Knowledge helps a person to define and distinguished reality and the ability to grasp things in his/her mind. Its function tells people what is the form of considered something as beauty, thus when other look at objects, they have the ability to classify thing into the...

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