Philosophy Of Knowledge; David Hume's "The Origin Of Our Ideas And Skepticism About Causal Reasoning" And "An Argument Against Skepticism," By John Hospers

529 words - 2 pages

David Hume's "The Origin of Our Ideas and Skepticism about Causal Reasoning" states his beliefs about knowledge and his idea that we can only have relative certainty of truth. Skeptics concur that there is not enough evidence to predict the future or prove truth. In "An Argument Against Skepticism," John Hospers argues that we can have absolute certainty because there is enough evidence from the past and from our own experiences to prove an argument to be true. Although both Hume and Hospers make strong arguments, Hospers' philosophical beliefs on different levels of knowledge and evidence are more convincing than Hume's concepts on knowledge and truth.Hume's argument is based on the idea that we can only be certain of analytical truths, such as mathematics; synthetic truths, or "matters of fact" are only and can only be probable, not truth. He believes that induction cannot be rationally justified because the premises support but do not guarantee the conclusion to the argument. Hume states that through experience, people assume that the future will represent the past, and that similar things will be coupled with similar qualities. Skeptics, like Hume, believe it is not an absolute truth that the sun will rise every day; it is merely supposed that history will repeat itself. If there is any suspicion that nature will change, experience becomes useless in predicting the future. Hume questions why we should accept the uniformity of nature, and anyone who argues this point is said to be "begging the question." He comes to the conclusion that...

Find Another Essay On Philosophy of Knowledge; David Hume's "The Origin of Our Ideas and Skepticism about Causal Reasoning" and "An Argument Against Skepticism," by John Hospers

Arguments against Philosophical Skepticism Essay

2420 words - 10 pages or possess knowledge, then no one has any reason to believe in skepticism. Skeptical hypothesis are incompatible with what is supposedly known, if skepticism is meant to undermine our beliefs and knowledge, then these hypothesis would prevent us from having any possible reason to consider said hypotheses. Treatise of Human Nature (1739) a major philosophical work was written in January 1739 by author David Hume. Hume, the most important English

Television Essay This essay is a argument against the watching of telivision by our children, and the backfalls of television on our children's lives and health.

2087 words - 8 pages teaches our children that life is just about earning money and buying things. Commercials are edited for children so that the product is accompanied by catchy music, colorful images, and rapid-fire way of delivering an appeal to our young children. Our children remember these commercials and can usually spit out part of the jingle when they ask for the item. They are so ingrained with these commercials that the companies tell them what they want in

Is Descartes' evil demon thought experiment a stronger argument for global skepticism than his dreaming argument? If yes, explain why; if no, explain why not.

1134 words - 5 pages Descartes's argument, it is possible that we are being controlled by an evil demon that has deceived us into believing everything that we have come to know as being true: from sunset to sunrise; going to sleep at night and waking up the next morning, to every other aspect of our lives and our knowledge of the world as we've come to know it. (Descartes, Introduction to Philosophy, 2009)If we believe God to be the creator of life itself, is it

'the Excellent Foppery of the World': Skepticism in King Lear

2424 words - 10 pages will argue that King Lear strongly advocates a skeptical worldview, not just in regards to belief in theism, but in all areas. A skeptical, humanistic philosophy pervades the entire text of Lear; I do not believe this is incidental. First, an important distinction must be made. Skepticism is not atheism, and it is not nihilism. By "skepticism" I simply mean the philosophical position whereby all claims and belief systems, particularly, although

Nietzsche’s Perspectivism and Philosophical Skepticism: A Comparison

4430 words - 18 pages of knowledge and the ideas about truth. The similarities fall under the religious skepticism and Nietzsche’s views. There are three main focal beliefs that Nietzsche commonly references in his works: Christianity, Pessimism and Nihilism. The Gay Science is the infamous work in which he declared the death of God. This declaration had a cultural context, referencing the overhaul by the Christian faith in the culture of his time and before. The

The Origin of Ideas

1139 words - 5 pages through their being understood, I manifestly know that nothing can be perceived more easily and more evidently than my own mind." The two opposing views on the origins of ideas by Locke and Descartes reflect their different approaches to philosophy. Locke is an empiricist. He believes that all concepts and knowledge are based on and can only be justified by experiences. Empiricism claims that knowledge derived by reasoning does not exist or

The Origin and Structure of our Universe

3913 words - 16 pages ). For the same reason I suppose that the Venus, Mercury and Young seem to contain new more complicated and heavy elements of higher orders than of uranium. 5. The Origin and Evolution of the Earth and Moon The Earth was born in the Sun's plasma and was put by the Sun into the circumsolar orbit more than 4,5 bln.yrs ago. The newborn was rather smart. It took for it about 8 hours to fly round the Sun and about 1 hour to rotate about its axis. The

David Hume's Of the Standard of Taste

646 words - 3 pages that of the objectivists, who would argue that the quality of art can be measured by a set of principles, that there is a universal standard outside of individual taste that can be used to measure the quality of art and to make an unbiased critique on a piece of artwork. This paper aims to unite objectivism and subjectivism in aesthetic judgments through the ideas presented in the essay “Of the Standard of Taste” by 18th century philosopher David

Paley vs. Hume This is a inductive argument about the origin and nature of God, religion, and the universe.

1025 words - 4 pages Paley vs. HumeI read William Paley's, "The Argument from Design", and David Hume's, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion." What I established after reading these two arguments is that it is extraordinarily difficult to come to any conclusion about the origin of the universe and the world. Both are inductive arguments about the origin and nature of God, religion, and the universe; things that can never be proven true and absolute.In Paley's

Descartes and Hume: A Look at Skepticism and Finding Stability

905 words - 4 pages doubting everything, and moderate skepticism, which Hume feels is the more reasonable form (Hume 36). Hume feels that antecedent skepticism is pointless, and that by simply doubting everything, one is not able to find an answer to what they are looking for because they may never be satisfied with any form of validity. However, Hume feels that moderate skepticism is “a necessary preparative to the study of philosophy, by preserving a proper

Write an essay which explains what you understand about the importance of Imaginative Journeys as a means of gaining knowledge of self and our place in the universe.

1247 words - 5 pages us depends on our own perspective, and this allows each journey to be unique. An individual's interpretation of what is seen is very important, as it is the main guidance of the imaginative journey. This reflects the connection of the mind and soul which allows self-awareness and the gain of sacred knowledge.The song lyric "Imaginary", written by Anne Lee, explores a very common type of imaginative journey - the dream. The opening verse uses

Similar Essays

Skepticism And The Philosophy Of Language In Early Modern Thought

3259 words - 13 pages conception, will have, of course, to face its own problems and difficulties, but it can be seen as an attempt to surpass skepticism as well as arguments of the kind of the maker's knowledge. But this is a different chapter of our history. Notes (1) For a detailed discussion of the different ways this notion was defined, see Jolley (1988). (2) See Lennon (1993). (3) I use this notion as characterized by Zagorin (1984) and Perez-Ramos

Hume's Conflict Between Causal Reasoning And Existence Of External Objects

1199 words - 5 pages our ideas by asking from what impressions they were derived. Sometimes indeed, we find no impressions to correspond to some imagined idea, and according to Hume, we have to conclude that we have been using a word vacuously, without any idea or meaning being attached to it. As mentioned earlier in the essay, there is an argument for the claim that causal reasoning is of fundamental importance for our knowledge of matters of fact. This brings an

David Hume's Argument Against Belief In The Existence Of Miracles

2170 words - 9 pages David Hume was a British empiricist, meaning he believed all knowledge comes through the senses. He argued against the existence of innate ideas, stating that humans have knowledge only of things which they directly experience. These claims have a major impact on his argument against the existence of miracles, and in this essay I will explain and critically evaluate this argument. In his discussion 'Of Miracles' in Section X of An Enquiry

David Hume's Theory Of Knowledge Essay

842 words - 3 pages . Mitigated skepticism was his approach to try to rid skepticism of the thoughts of human origin, and only include questions that people may begin to understand. Hume’s goal was to limit philosophical questioning to things which could be comprehended. Empiricism states that knowledge is based on experience, so everything that is known is learned through experience, but nothing is ever truly known. David Hume called lively and strong experiences