Philosophy of Language
Man initially thought that language afforded him a better knowledge of things rather than merely a designation of things. However, this is based on an exact notion of things, and no exactness exists; identity can only be conceptual, for there is nothing in life that is identical. The mythology of language rests in this search for the exactness of things and the schematization of our world.
Language evolved simultaneously with consciousness, for we felt the need to communicate. Language fills this need, but it produces only a vague and shallow reflection of what we are thinking, for only small amounts of man's thoughts are brought into consciousness. Our thoughts are captured and translated into the perspective of the herd, thus this herd rules our consciousness. Only the average in someone is expressed and becomes part of the herd, for we only know what is "useful" in terms of the herd. It becomes difficult for one to know oneself, for the thoughts of which we are tangibly conscious are only those that we can communicate, and such are only a vague mirror.
The attempt of science and tragic drama to schematize things eventually gives over to eruption of life and will that is in no way bounded. The laughter of the gods is a celebration of life for it is acknowledgment of life. Everything erupts in a celebration of whatever is, amor fatis, a celebration of fate. We have three metamorphoses of the spirit: camel, which bears the wisdom of the past, lion, which rejects past wisdom for her own idea, and child, the creative being. We must pass through these stages in order to become free of lessons that we have not taught our selves that hinder our creative and independent will. Reality is will.
Heidegger strives to understand and explain Being, which is separate and much grander than our being, but also inherently intertwined. The concepts explained here are from Letter on Humanism, Being and Time, and The Origin of the Work of Art. Being is the Being of our being, but it must be allowed to Be through us. Human beings are distinct because for us, Being is a question. A simple definition of space, such as a rock, is not Being. We have a relationship of care and concern with others in the world.
According to Heidegger, human being is a unique being in the world with others towards death; he calls this Dasein. He believes that there is an understanding and sensibility to Being and we must be open to all the possible multiple expressions of Being. Life is not about doing, but about being, for when one simply "be's," one becomes a vehicle for Being. Ek-sistence is the state in which the essence of man preserves the only source that determines him, and I think that the source determining him is Being. The authenticity of one's existence depends not on action but on the recognition of the self-disclosing character of oneself: by not acting intentionally, one can truly ek-sist. In order...