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Philosophy Overview Essay

10212 words - 41 pages

1. Mythology and philosophy: the rational and the irrational. Criteria of rational knowledgeMythology - is the way of explaining and ordering what is explained and interpreted. This is a mixture of both reason and unreason, of reason and passions. Is about non-rational or irrational aspects of human mentality. It is the way of thinking what we found around ourselves. Mythology is the way of thinking what we found around ourselves.Philosophy - tries to separate what is rational and irrational, to define what is rational knowledge and what is the relation between rational and irrational. And also tries to answer the questions about ends of human life.Criteria of Rational Knowledge1. Objectivity or intersubjectivity of results of the quest fro knowledge2. Objective or intersubjective testability of the results of knowing - truth.Rationalism - knowledge based on methods: reasoning, argument, experience, observation, proof. Method is deduction.Irrationalism - individual knowledge there is no method of mystical experience, e.g. mysticism- close to poetry.2.The idea of philosophy: love of wisdom and contemplation of the divine order (philosophia, theoria, kosmos, chaos and nous). Philosophy according to Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.Philosophy from an etymological point of view is the love of wisdom (from Greek phileo [I love], and sophia [wisdom, knowledge]). Pythagoras (570 BC) was the first philosopher to use this world in this specific meaning, but he did mot consider himself a philosopher.Philosophers before Pythagoras were wise and the philosophized without knowing they were doing philosophy, they were simply interested in finding answers to questions they raised as important or even fundamental for the explanation and understanding the universe and man.They were transgressing this popular way of thinking; coming to a conclusion that what was a real job for a thinker was to theorize. Theorizing and theory as its product is something different from what we would think a theory is. Now days a "theory" is mostly associated with sciences.According to Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.) Lovers of wisdom (philosophers) are seekers after wisdom. They are between the ignorant, who are not interested in wisdom, and gods, who are wise already. Plato (428-347 B.C.) thought that philosophy is the quest for truth, but he also thought that astonishment is the beginning of philosophy: "for wonder is the feeling of a philosopher, and philosophy begins in wonder. He was not a bad genealogist who said that Iris (the messenger of heaven) is the child of Thaumas (wonder)." His disciple Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) repeated his opinion: "For through astonishment men have begun to philosophise both in our times and at the beginning"A Greek noun theoria, and a verb theoreo, [to look at, to behold, to observe; to consider, to contemplate, to examine; to perceive], has a root theos [god, deity, divine being], means "to contemplate the divine". Therefore, the original...

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