Aristotle starts by saying we suppose ourselves to possess knowledge of a thing, rather than accidentally knowing it (sophist). He asserts that we know all events by demonstration: by a syllogism that is a product of scientific knowledge. Assuming this is true, the premises must be true because we can’t know what doesn’t exist, they must be primary or basic truths which is an immediate proposition, they must be indemonstrable because you need a demonstration to know something demonstrable, they must cause the conclusion, and they must be better known and prior to the conclusion. If a syllogism is without these things, it is no demonstration.
Objects nearer to sense are prior and better ...view middle of the document...
All questions are a search for a middle. Aristotle observes that in many cases the nature of the thing and the reason of the fact are identical. He then develops the idea that not everything demonstrable can be defined, and not everything definable can be demonstrated. Definition reveals nature while demonstration reveals the attachment of an attribute
Next Aristotle considers causes.
Men don’t know until they understand ‘why’ (the primary cause). There are four senses of cause: that out of which a thing comes to be, the form of the archetype, the primary source of change, the reason something is done.
Since there are many senses of cause, a thing has many causes. Some things cause each other (in different senses of cause) and one thing can cause contrary things.
There are many modes of causation: there are proper and genus and incidental causes, which are complex or by itself and then all can be spoken as potential or actual. In total there are six various uses. Causes that are actual and particular exist and stop existing simultaneously with their effect. This isn’t always true for potential causes.
To investigate a cause of a thing, seek what’s most precise and the last cause is then the prior.
The number of causes is the number of things under the question why
Why is referred to: in things that don’t involve motion, what initiated the motion, for the sake of what, the case of things coming into being
There are three branches of study: things incapable of motion, things in motion but indestructible, and destructible things. ‘Why’ is answered by referencing matter, its form, and the primary moving cause.
There are two principles hat cause motion in a physical way, the completely unchangeable and the form
Plato’s view on the nature of science centers on his theory of the Forms. Plato’s Forms are similar in some ways to Aristotle’s basic truth, they are the...