Phobias And Addictions Essay

988 words - 4 pages

Grass is issential to human and animal life. Without grass humans and animals would starve to death. Wheat and hay are grassis that fed humans and animals. there are more than three hundred genera of grass with more than five thousand species known to man. Grass design makes it very wind resistant. Like any plant, grass needs sun light and water to live. The color of grass which is green has an affect on man's brain making him calm, while red irritates the entire nervous system. Green is the most soothing color of the color spectrum. Red is the most harsh. Grass is very important. It feeds the world. "For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities. His eternal power and divine nature, have clearly been seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse."
Phobias and addictions are emotional difficulties that can be accounted for by learning theorist. Phobias and addictions are the result of classical and operant conditioning. Those too concept's is behavior modification techniques and are important in behavior psychology. Every one has things that they are affraid of and things that they are addicted to and understanding how they function and how to effectively change the behavior can improve the quality of life.
Distinguishing between classical and operant conditioning
Some of the differences between classical and operant conditioning are, classical conditioning is involuntary behavior and operant conditioning is voluntary behavior. Classical conditioning makes a connection between the stimulus and the involuntary reaction. Operant conditioning makes a connection between behavior that is voluntary and the predetermined consequences, reward or punishment. ‘Classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished’ (Kendra Cherry, 2011).
How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning
In the early twentieth century, a Russian psychologist named Ivan Pavlov (Pavlov, 1927) was working with dogs when he discovered that they would salivate at the sight and smell of the food. He then began ringing a bell when the food was given and discovered that the dogs would salivate at the sound of the bell. They had made a connection with the sound and the food. Understanding that this was a learned reaction he began to study the process of conditioning.
The food naturally activated the saliva glands. This was an automatic unconditioned response. The bell in itself would not naturally activate the saliva glands but once it was paired with the food the dogs then made an association and the bell became a conditioned stimulus resulting in saliva. At this point the bell alone was enough to activate the saliva glands. This is called a conditioned response and proved that a neutral stimulus such as the bell could become a conditioned stimulus and cause an entirely...

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