Photosynthesis is a biological process for (mostly) plants to form food by light. Respiration is also a biological process where living organisms inhale oxygen from the atmosphere to be used for food to make energy and exhale carbon dioxide. In this unit we learned about Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments, the relationship between structure and function in a leaf, the apple juice lab, alternative carbon fixation methods, different plants and their relationship with photosynthesis, glycolysis and fermentation.
Photosynthesis is a way (mostly) for plants to get food. Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy. The process of photosynthesis has a series of chemical reactions which use carbon dioxide and water to store the chemical energy in sugar form. Oxygen is the byproduct of photosynthesis, and is released into the atmosphere. Photosynthesis uses light energy to get the electrons from the water to the sugar products. The equation for photosynthesis is carbon dioxide + water + the sun’s light = water and carbohydrates.
Respiration is when glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. It produces two ATP’s and doesn’t need oxygen. The second step is the Calvin cycle, which occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. The Calvin cycle, breaks down three carbon molecules from glycolysis producing carbon dioxide and water. Also producing two additional ATP and increases the H+ and electrons for the third stage. The third stage is the electron transport chain. This chain carries electrons and protons from the Calvin cycle down the chain producing thirty-two ATP’s. This formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 --------> 6H2O + 6CO2.
Chlorophyll, is the green pigment in photosynthesis that absorbs all wavelengths of visible light except green, which is reflected. The accessory pigments absorb the energy that the chlorophyll doesn’t. The chlorophyll absorbs violet-blue and reddish-orange-yellow wavelengths. Leaving the green wavelength noticeable to the human eye making the leaf green.
In the activity, “Photosynthesis: What’s a leaf?” we learned about the relationship between the structure and function of a leaf starts with the leaves. The leaves provide oxygen for animals and food for heterotrophs. The leaves help recycle the carbon and oxygen within the environment. This is because the sun’s energy gives an undying amount of oxygen and food for earth. Veins are an important structure on the leaf, especially the central vein. These veins carry water and sugar throughout the plants system. Inside the veins, are xylem and phloem. Xylem carries water and minerals to the roots. Phloem carries sugars to where the plant is growing or storage areas. Inside the leaf are cuticle which cover both the upper and lower epidermis to repel water. Lower, is the chloroplast. The chloroplast is the organelle where photosynthesis occurs.
The chloroplasts are surrounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is a mix of both enzymes and water known as the...